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  1. Legutki JB, Zhao ZG, Greving M, Woodbury N, Johnston SA, Stafford P. Scalable High-Density Peptide Arrays for Comprehensive Health Monitoring. Nature Communications (2014).
  2. Stafford P, Cichacz Z, Woodbury N, Johnston SA. An Immunosignature System for Diagnosis of Cancer. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences (2014).
  3. Navalkar K, Magee DM, Cichacz Z, Galgiani J, Woodbury NW, Johnston SA, Woodbury NW, Stafford P. Application of Immunosignatures to Diagnosis of Valley Fever. Clinical Vaccine Immunolology (2014).
  4. Shen, L., D. Hansen, S.A. Johnston and J.B. Legutki. Could immunosignature technology enable the development of a preventative cancer vaccine?. Expert Review of Vaccines (2014).


  1. Packer, RJ, et al. “Implications of New Understandings of Gliomas in Children and Adults with NF1: Report of a Consensus Conference”. Neuro-Oncology 2019 (in review)

  2. Shen, L, Zhang J, Lee H, Batista M, Johnston SA. “RNA Transcription and Splicing Errors as a Source of Cancer Frameshift Neoantigens for Vaccines”. Scientific Reports; 2019 Oct 2;PMID: 31578439


  1. Wang L, Stafford P, Johnston SA. “A common antibody response is induced by a wide variety of human pathogens”. (in review). 2018

  2. Zhang J, Shen L, Johnston SA. “Using Frameshift Peptide Arrays for Cancer Neo-Antigens Screening”. Sci Rep. 2018 Nov 26;8(1) PMID: 30478295 

  3. Gunther OP, Gardy JL, Stafford P, Fluge O, Melia O, Tang P, Miller RR, Parker SM, Johnston SA, Patrick DM. “Immunosignature Analysis of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/DFS)”. Mol Neurobiol. 2018 Oct 8. PMID: 30298340

  4. Hansen DT, Craciunescu FM, Fromme P, Johnston SA, Sykes KF. “Generation of High-Spcificity Antibodies against Membrane Proteins Using DNA-Gold Micronanoplexes for Gene Gun Immunization”. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 2018 Feb 21. PMID: 29516482

  5. Rabinowitz JA, Lainson JC, Johnston SA,Diehnelt CW. “Non-natural amino acid peptide microarrays to discover Ebola virus glycoprotein ligands”, Chem Commun, 2018 Jan. PMID: 29297911


  1. Wang L, Whittemore K, Johnston SA, Stafford P. “Entropy is a Simple Measure of the Antibody Profile and is an Indicator of Health Status: A Proof of Concept”, Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 22. PMID: 29273777

  2. Zhao ZG, Cordovez LA, Johnston SA, Woodbury N. “Peptide Sequencing Directly on Solid Surfaces Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry”. Sci Rep. 2017 Dec. PMID: 29259225

  3. Johnston SA, Domenyuk V, Gupta N, Batista MT, Lainson JC, Zhao ZG, Lusk JF, Loskutov A, Cichacz A, Stafford P, Legutki JB, Diehnelt CW. “A Simple Platform for the Rapid Development of Antimicrobials”. Sci Rep. 2017 Dec. PMID: 29242618

  4. Batista MT, Ferreira EL, Pereira GS, Stafford P, Maeda DLNF, Rodrigues JF, Brady LJ, Johnston SA, Ferreira LCS, Ferreira RCC. “LT adjuvant modulates epitope specificity and improves the efficacy of murine antibodies elicited by sublingual vaccination with the N-terminal domain of Streptococcus mutans P1”. Vaccine. 2017 Dec. PMID: 29146379

  5. Maeda DLNF, Batista MT, Pereira LR, de Jesus Cintra M., Amorim JH, Mathias-Santos C, Pereira SA, Boscardin SB, Silva SDR, Faquim-Mauro EL, Silveira VB, Oliveira DBL, Johnston SA, Ferreira LCS, Rodrigues JF. “Adjuvant-Mediated Epitope Specificity and Enhanced Neutralizing Activity of Antibodies Targeting Dengue Virus Envelope Protein”. Front Immunol. 2017 Sept. PMID: 28993770

  6. Lainson JC, Daly SM, Triplett K, Johnston SA, Hall PR, Diehnelt CW. “Synthetic Antibacterial Peptide Exhibit Synergy with Oxacillin against MRSA”, ACS Med Chem Lett, 2017 Jul 7;8(8);853-857. PMID: 28835801

  7. Gupta N, Lainson J, Belcher P, Shen L, Mason H, Johnson SA, Diehnelt C.  “Cross-Reactive Synbody Affinity Ligands Capture Diverse Noroviruses”, Analytical Chemistry, 2017 July 5; PMID: 28640636


  1. Singh S, Stafford P, Schlauch KA, Tillett RR, Gollery M, Johnston SA, Khaiboullina SF, De Mierleir KL, Rawat S, Mijatovic T, Subramanian K., Palotas A, Lombardi VC. “Humoral Immunity Profiling of Subjects with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Using a Random Peptide Microarray Differentiates Cases from Controls with High Specificity and Sensitivity”. Mol Neurobiology 2016 Dec 15. PMID: 27981498

  2. Gupta N, Lainson J, Domenyuk V, Zhao ZG, Johnston Sa, Diehnelt CW. “Whole-Virus Screening to Develop Synbodies for the Influenza Virus”. Bioconjug Chem. 2016 Oct 19;27(10);2505-2512. Epub 2016 Sep23. PMID: 27658460

  3. Whittemore K, Johnston SA, Sykes K, Shen L. “A General method to Discover Epitopes from Sera”, PLoS One 2016 Jun 14;11(6);eCollection 2016, PMID: 27300760

  4. Stafford P, Wrapp D, Johnston SA., “General Assessment of Humoral Activity in Healthy Humans”, Mol Cell Proteomics, 2016 May.


  1. Lainson JC, Fuenmayor MF, Johnston SA, Diehnelt CW. “Conjugation Approach to Produce a Staphylococcus aureus Synbody with Activity in Serum”. Bioconjug Chem. 2015 Oct 21;epub 2015 Sep14. PMID: 26365100

  2. O’Donnell B., Maurer A., Papandreou-Suppappola A., Stafford P., Johnson SA., “Time-Frequency Analysis of Peptide Microarray Data:  Application to Brain Cancer Immunosignatures” Cancer Informatics, in press, 2015

  3. Richer JA, Johnston SA, Stafford P; “Epitope identification from fixed-complexity random-sequence peptides microarrays”; Molecular & Cellular Proteomics; 14.1 (2015); 136-147


  1. Navalkar KA, Johnston SA, Stafford P; “Peptide based diagnostics: “Are random-sequence peptides more useful than tiling proteome sequences?”;Journal of Immunological Methods, (2014)

  2. Johnston SA, Thamm DH, Legutki JB. “The immunosignature of canine lymphoma: characterization and diagnostic application”. BMC Cancer 2014 Sep 8;14:657. PMID 25199568

  3. Stafford P, Cichacz Z, Woodbury NW, Johnston SA; "Immunosignature system for diagnosis of cancer." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, no. 30 (2014): E3072-E3080.

  4. Legutki JB, Zhao ZG, Greving M, Woodbury N, Johnston SA, Stafford P: “Scalable High-Density Peptide Arrays for Comprehensive Health Monitoring”, Nature Communications. 2014 Sep 3;5:4785, PMID: 25183057

  5. Navalkar K, Magee DM, Cichacz Z, Galgiani J, Woodbury NW, Johnston SA, Woodbury NW, Stafford P: “Application of Immunosignatures to Diagnosis of Valley Fever”, Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Aug;21(8): 1169-77,Epub 2014 Jun25 PMID: 24964807.

  6. Johnston, SA et al., Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics, The Annual Meeting of the     Antibody Society, Meeting Report. mAbs 6:3, 1-42;May/June 2014, Landes Bioscience

  7. Shen, L., D. Hansen, S.A. Johnston and J.B. Legutki. 2014. Could immunosignature       technology enable the development of a preventative cancer vaccine? Expert    Review of Vaccines. Early online, 1-3 (2014)

  8. Legutki JB, Johnston SA, Immunosignatures can predict vaccine efficacy, Proc Natl        Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 28. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24167296


  1. Domenyuk V, Loskutov A, Johnston SA, Diehnelt CW. A Technology for Developing Synbodies with Antibacterial Activity. PLoS ONE (2013).

  2. Legutki JB, Johnston SA. Immunosignatures can predict vaccine efficacy. PNAS (2013).

  3. Johnston, s.a.. Cancer goal: vaccine is cause for optimism. Nature (2013).


  1. Halperin RF, Stafford P, Emery JS, Navalkar KA, Johnston SA. GuiTope: An Application for Mapping Random-Sequence Peptides to Protein Sequences. BMC Bioinformatics (2012).

  2. Hughes AK, Cichacz Z, Scheck A, Coons SW, Johnston SA, Stafford P. Immunosignaturing can detect products from molecular markers in brain cancer. PLoS One (2012).

  3. Kroening K, Johnston SA, Legutki JB. Autoreactive antibodies raised by self-derived de novo peptides can identify unrelated antigens on protein microarrays. Experimental and Molecular Pathology (2012).

  4. Kukreja M, Johnston SA, Stafford P. Comparative study of classification algorithms for immunosignaturing data. BMC Bioinformatics (2012).

  5. Kukreja m, Johnston SA, Stafford P. Immunosignaturing Microarrays Distinguish Antibody Profiles of Related Pancreatic Diseases. Proteomics & Bioinformatics (2012).

  6. McGuire, MN., Johnston, SA., Sykes, KE. Novel immune-modulator identified by a rapid, functional screen of the Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus) genome. Proteome Science (2012).

  7. Restrepo L, Stafford P, Johnston SA. Feasibility of an Early Alzheimer's Disease Immunosignature Diagnostic Test. Journal of Neuroimmunology (2012).

  8. Stafford, P., Halperin, R., Legutki, JB., Magee, DM., Galgiani, J., Johnston, SA. Physical Characterization of the "Immunosignaturing Effect". Molecular Cell Proteomics (2012).


  1. Brown, J., Stafford, P., Johnston, SA, Dinu, V.. Statistical Methods for Analyzing Immunosignatures. BMC Bioinformatics (2011).

  2. Gupta N., Belcher P., Johnston SA., Diehnelt C. Engineering a Synthetic Ligand for Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha. Bioconjugate Chemistry (2011).

  3. Restrepo L., Stafford P., Magee DM., Johnston SA. Application of immunosignatures to the Assessment of Alzheimer's disease. Annals of Neurology (2011).

  4. Stafford P, Johnston SA. Microarray technology displays the complexities of the humoral immune response. Expert Reviews in Molecular Diagnostics (2011).


  1. Diehnelt C, Shah, M, Gupta, N, Belcher, PE, Greving, MP, Stafford, P, Johnston, SA. Discovery of High-Affinity Protein Binding Ligands - Backwards. PLoS One (2010).

  2. Fu J, Cai K, Johnston SA, Woodbury NW. Exploring peptide space for enzyme modulators. J Am Chem Soc (2010).

  3. Greving MP, Belcher PE, Diehnelt CW, Gonzalez-Moa MJ, Emery J, et al.. Thermodynamic Additivity of Sequence Variations: An Algorithm for Creating High Affinity Peptides Without Large Libraries or Structural Information. . PLoS ONE (2010).

  4. Legutki JB, Magee DM, Stafford P, Johnston SA. A general method for characterization of humoral immunity induced by a vaccine or infection. Vaccine (2010).


  1. Berea A. R. Williams, Chris W. Diehnelt, Paul Belcher, Matthew Greving, Neal W. Woodbury, Stephen A. Johnston, and John C. Chaput. Creating Protein Affinity Reagents by Combining Peptide Ligands on Synthetic DNA Scaffolds. Journal of the American Chemical Society (2009).

  2. Betanzos CM, Gonzalez-Moa M, Johnston SA, Svarovsky SA. Facile labeling of lipoglycans with quantum dots. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (2009).

  3. Boltz KW, Gonzalez-Moa MJ, Stafford P, Johnston SA, Svarovsky SA. Peptide microarrays for carbohydrate recognition.. Analyst. (2009).

  4. Morales Betanzos C, Gonzalez-Moa MJ, Boltz KW, Vander Werf BD, Johnston SA, Svarovsky SA. Bacterial glycoprofiling by using random sequence peptide microarrays. Chembiochem (2009).


  1. Archer, Chase T ; Delahodde, Agnes ; Gonzalez, Fernando ; Johnston, Stephen Albert ; Kodadek, Thomas.. Activation domain-dependent monoubiquitylation of Gal4 protein is essential for promoter binding in vivo. The Journal of biological chemistry (2008).

  2. Kumar, P.K., Y. Yu, R. Sternglanz, S. A. Johnston and L. Joshua-Tor. NADP regulates the yeast GAL induction system.. Science. (2008).


  1. Talaat AM, Ward SK, Wu CW, Rondon E, Tavano C et al.. Mycobacterial bacilli are metabolically active during chronic tuberculosis in murine lungs: Insights from genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Journal of Bacteriology (2007).


  1. B Qu, P Boyer, Stephen Johnston, L Hynan, R Rosenberg. Abeta-42 gene vaccination reduces brain amyloid plaque burden in transgenic mice. J. Neurol. Sci (2006).

  2. J Lawson, R Lyons, Stephen Johnston. Expression Profiling of Yersinia pestis During Mouse Pulmonary Infection. DNA Cell Biol (2006).

  3. J Lawson, Stephen Johnston. Amplification of Sense-Stranded Prokaryotic RNA. DNA Cell Biol (2006).

  4. K Nalley, Stephen Johnston. Gal4 does not cycle on and off promoters while activating transcription. Nature (2006).

  5. S Chen, J Ding, R Bereredjian, B Yang, R Shohet, Stephen Johnston, H Hohmeier, C Newgard, P Grayburn. Efficient gene delivery to pancreatic islets with ultrasonic microbubble destruction technology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci (2006).


  1. C Solis, P Ostoa-Saloma, V Lugo-Martinez, Stephen Johnston, J Laclette. Genetic vaccination against murine cysticercosis by using a plasmid vector carrying Taenia solium paramyosin. Infection and Immunity (2005).

  2. C Solis, P Ostoa-Saloma, V Lugo-Martinez, Stephen Johnston, J Laclette. Related Articles, Links Genetic vaccination against murine cysticercosis by using a plasmid vector carrying Taenia solium paramyosin. Infect Immun (2005).

  3. D Magee, R Friedberg, M Woitaske, Stephen Johnston, R Cox. Role of B cells in vaccine-induced immunity against coccidioidomycosis. Infection and Immunity (2005).

  4. Jitakshi De, Ya-Ching Chang, Kausar Samli, Jonathan Schisler, Christopher Newgard, Stephen Johnston, Kathlynn Brown. Isolation of a Mycoplasma-specific binding peptide from unbiased phage-displayed peptide library. Molecular Biosystems (2005).

  5. K Stemke-Hale, B Kaltenboeck, F DeGraves, K Sykes, J Huang, C Bu, Stephen Johnston. Related Articles, Links Screening the whole genome of a pathogen in vivo for individual protective antigens. Vaccine (2005).

  6. K Stemke-Hale, B Kaltenboeck, F DeGraves, Kathryn Sykes, J Huang, C Bu, Stephen Johnston. Screening the whole genome of a pathogen in vivo for individual protective antigens. Vaccine (2005).

  7. Kausar Samli, Michael McGuire, Christopher Newgard, Stephen Johnston, Kathlynn Brown. Peptide Mediated targeting to the Islets of Langerhans. Diabetes (2005).


  1. A Talaat, R Lyons, S Howard, Stephen Johnston. The temporal expression profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. PNAS (2004).

  2. Bao-Xi Qu, R Rosenberg, L Li, P Boyer, Stephen Johnston. Genetic vaccination to bias the immune response to amyloid beta peptide as therapy for alzheimers. Archives of Neurobiology (2004).