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  1. Otto CC, Kilbourne J, Haydel SE.Natural and ion-exchanged illite clays reduce bacterial burden and inflammation in cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Jan;65(1):19-27. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000195. Epub 2015 Oct 27.
  2. Syal K, Iriya R, Yang Y, Yu H, Wang S, Haydel SE, Chen HY, Tao N. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test with Plasmonic Imaging and Tracking of Single Bacterial Motions on Nanometer Scale. ACS Nano. 2016 Jan 26;10(1):845-52. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.5b05944. Epub 2015 Dec 8.
  3. Otto, C. C. and S. E. Haydel. 2013. Microbicidal clays: composition, activity, mechanism of action, and therapeutic applications. A. Méndez-Vilas, ed. In: Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them: science, technology and education. Badajoz, Spain: Formatex Research Center. 2:1169-1180.
  4. Otto, C. C. and S. E. Haydel. 2013. Exchangeable ions are responsible for the in vitro antibacterial properties of natural clay mixtures. PLoS ONE 8(5): e64068 (9 pages).


  1. Solanky, D. and S. E. Haydel. 2012. Adaptation of the neutral bacterial comet assay to assess antimicrobial-mediated DNA double-strand breaks in Escherichia coli. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 91:257-261.
  2. Haydel, S. E., V. Malhotra, G. L. Cornelison, and J. E. Clark-Curtiss. 2012. The prrAB two-component system is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability and is induced during nitrogen-limiting conditions. Journal of Bacteriology. 194:354-361.


  1. Pang, X., G. Cao, P. F. Neuenschwander, S. E. Haydel, G. Hou, and S. T. Howard. 2011. The b-propeller gene Rv1057 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a complex promoter directly regulated by both the MprAB and TrcRS two-component systems. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 91:S142-S149.
  2. Otto, C. C. and S. E. Haydel. 2011. Morphology of mature Mycobacterium ulcerans colonies. ASM MicrobeLibrary 2.0.
  3. R. Treuer and S. E. Haydel. 2011. Acid-fast staining and Petroff Hausser chamber counting of mycobacterial cells in liquid suspension. Current Protocols in Microbiology. 20:10A.6.1-10A.6.6. DOI: 10.1002/9780471729259.mc10a06s20.


  1. Otto, C. C., T. M. Cunningham, M. R. Hansen, S. E. Haydel. 2010. Effects of antibacterial mineral leachates on the cellular ultrastructure, morphology, and membrane integrity of Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 9:26 (13 pages).
  2. S. E. Haydel. 2010. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: a sign of the times and an impetus for antimicrobial discovery. Pharmaceuticals 3:2268-2290.
  3. Cunningham, T. M., J. L. Koehl, J. S. Summers, and S. E. Haydel. 2010. pH-dependent metal ion toxicity influences the antibacterial activity of two natural mineral mixtures. PLoS ONE 5(3):e9456 (9 pages). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009456
  4. Williams, L. B. and S. E. Haydel. 2010. Evaluation of the medicinal use of clay minerals as antibacterial agents. International Geology Review 52:745-770.


Williams, L. B., S. E. Haydel, R. E. Ferrell. 2009. Bentonite, bandaids, and borborygmi. Elements 5:99-105.


  1. Williams, L. B., S. E. Haydel, R. F. Giese, Jr., D. D. Eberl. 2008. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of French green clays used for healing. Clays and Clay Minerals 56:437-452.
  2. Haydel, S. E., C. M. Remenih, L. B. Williams. 2008. Broad-spectrum in vitro antibacterial activities of clay minerals against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 61:353-361.


Haydel, S. E. and J. E. Clark-Curtiss. 2006. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis TrcR response regulator represses transcription of the intracellularly-expressed Rv1057 gene, encoding a seven-bladed β-propeller. Journal of Bacteriology 188:150-159.


Haydel, S. E. and J. E. Clark-Curtiss. 2004. Global expression analysis of two-component system regulators during Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth in human macrophages. FEMS Microbiology Letters 236:341-347.


Clark-Curtiss, J. E. and S. E. Haydel. 2003. Molecular genetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. Annual Review of Microbiology 57:517-549.


Haydel, S. E., W. H. Benjamin, Jr., N. E. Dunlap, J. E. Clark-Curtiss. 2002. Expression, autoregulation, and DNA binding properties of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis TrcR response regulator. Journal of Bacteriology 184:2192-2203.


Haydel, S. E., N. E. Dunlap, W. H. Benjamin, Jr. 1999. In vitro evidence of two-component system phosphorylation between the Mycobacterium tuberculosis TrcR/TrcS proteins. Microbial Pathogenesis 26:195-206.