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  1. A. Buchberger, H. Saini, K. Rahmani Eliato, A.  Zare,  R. Merkley,  Y. Xu,  , J. Bernal, , R. Ros,  M. Nikkhah, N. Stephanopoulos; Reversible Control of Gelatin Hydrogel Stiffness using DNA Crosslinkers, ChemBioChem 2021 Jan 23;. doi: 10.1002/cbic.202100030. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. M. Yang, J. Cruz Villarreal A. Ariyasinghe, R. Kruithoff, R. Ros, A. Ros; Quantitative Approach for Protein Analysis in Small Cell Ensembles by an Integrated Microfluidic Chip with MALDI Mass Spectrometry, Analytical Chemistry, 93, 15, 6053–6061 (2021)



  1.  H. Saini, K. Rahmani Eliato, J. Veldhuizen, A. Zareb, M. Allam, C. Silva, A. Kratz, D. Truong, G. Mouneimne, J. LaBaer, R. Ros, M. Nikkhah; The role of tumor-stroma interactions on desmoplasia and tumorigenicity within a microengineered 3D platform, Biomaterials 247, 119975 (2020)

  2. [M.A. Thirumurthy, A. Hitchcock, A. Cereda, J. Liu, M.S. Chavez, B.L. Doss, R. Ros, M. El-Naggar, J.T. Heap, T. Bibby, A.K. Jones; Type IV pili-Independent photocurrent production by the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Frontiers in Microbiology 11,1344 (2020).

  3. A. Buchberger, H. Saini, K. Rahmani Eliato, R. Merkley,  Y. Xu,  A.  Zare, J. Bernal, M. Nikkhah, R. Ros, N. Stephanopoulos; Reversible Control of Gelatin Hydrogel Stiffness using DNA Crosslinkers, ChemRxiv. Preprint (2020).

  4.  M. Yang, A. Ariyasinghe, R. Ros, A. Ros; A quantitative approach for multiplexed protein analysis in single cells by an integrated microfluidic chip with MALDI mass. (submitted).


  1. A. Navaei, K. Rahmani Eliato, R. Ros, R.Q. Migrino, B. C. Willis, and M. Nikkhah; The Influence of Electrically Conductive and Non-Conductive Nanocomposite Scaffolds on Maturation and Excitability of Engineered Cardiac Tissues, Biomaterials Science 7,2, 585-595 (2019).

  2. B.L. Doss, K.Rahmani Eliato, K.-h. Lin, and R. Ros; Quantitative mechanical analysis of indentations on layered, soft elastic materials, Soft Matter  15, 1776-1784 (2019).

  3. J.I. Puleo, M. R. Roman, S.S. Parker, A.W. Watson, K. Rahmani Eliato, L. Peng, K. Saboda, D.J. Roe, R.Ros, F.B. Gertler, and G. Mouneimne; Mechanosensing during directed cell migration requires dynamic actin polymerization at focal adhesions, Journal of Cell Biology 218 (12), 4215–4235 (2019).


  1. B. Plochberger, C. Röhrl, J. Weghuber, M. Axmann, M. Brameshuber, B. Rossboth, R. Ros, R. Bittman, H. Stangl, and G. Schuetz; Direct observation of cargo transfer from HDL particles to the live cell plasma membrane, Atherosclerosis,  277, 53-59 (2018)

  2. H. Saini, K. Rahmani, C. Silva, M. Allam, R. Ros, M. Nikkhah; The Role of Desmoplasia and Stromal Fibroblasts on Anti-Cancer Drug Resistance in a Microengineered Tumor Model, Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 11 (5), 419-433 (2018).

  3. P.-H. Wu, D.R.-B. Aroush, A. Asnacios, W.-C. Chen, M.E. Dokukin, B.L. Doss, P. Durand, A. Ekpenyong, J. Guck, N.V. Guz, P.A. Janmey, N.M. Moore, A. Ott, Y.-C. Poh, R. Ros, M. Sander, I. Sokolov, J.R. Staunton, N. Wang, D. Wirtz; Comparative study of cell mechanics methods, Nature Methods 15, 491-498 (2018).

  4. J. Candiello, T.S. Pavan Grandhi, S. Kia Goh, V. Vaidya, M. Lemmon-Kishi, K. Rahmani Eliato, R. Ros, P.N. Kumta, K. Rege, I. Banerjee; 3D heterogeneous islet organoid generation from human embryonic stem cells using a novel engineered hydrogel platform, Biomaterials 177, 27-39 (2018).

  5. S. Senapati, S. Biswas, S. Manna, R. Ros, S. Lindsay, P. Zhang; A Y–Shaped Three-Arm Structure for Probing Bivalent Interactions of Protein Receptor-Ligand with AFM and SPR, Langmuir 34, 23, 6930-6940 (2018).

  6. J.J. Faust, W. Christenson, K. Doudrick, J. Heddleston, T.-L. Chew, M. Lampe, A. Balibayev, R. Ros, T.P. Ugarova; Fabricating Optical-quality Glass Surfaces to Study Macrophage Fusion, JoVE 133, e56866 (2018).


  1. I. Gregor, M. Spiecker, R. Petrovsky, J. Großhans, R. Ros, and J. Enderlein; Rapid Non‐linear Image Scanning Microscopy, Nature Methods 14, 1087–1089 (2017). 

  2. B. Plochberger, C. Röhrl, J. Preiner, Ch. Rankl, M. Brameshuber, J. Madl, R. Bittman, R. Ros, E. Sezgin, Ch. Eggeling, P. Hinterdorfer, H. Stangl, G.J. Schütz; HDL particles incorporate into lipid bilayers – a combined AFM and single molecule fluorescence microscopy study, Scientific Reports 7: 15886 (2017).

  3. J.J Faust,  W. Christenson; K. Doudrick, R. Ros, and T.P. Ugarova; Fabricating glass surfaces that enable direct visualization of multinucleated giant cell formation Biomaterials 128,  160-171 (2017).


  1. A. Navaei, H. Saini, W. Christenson, R.T. Sullivan, R. Ros, and M. Nikkhah; Gold Nanorod-Gold nanorod-incorporated Gelatin-based Conductive Hydrogels for Engineering Cardiac Tissue Constructs, Acta Biomaterialia41, 133-146 (2016).

  2. N. Peela, F.S. Sam; W. Christenson, D. Truong, A.W. Watson, G. Mouneimne, R. Ros, and M. Nikkhah; A Three Dimensional Micropatterned Tumor Model for Breast Cancer Cell Migration Studies, Biomaterials 81, 72-83 (2016).

  3. J. Staunton, B. Doss, S. Lindsay, R. Ros; Correlating confocal microscopy and atomic force indentation reveals metastatic cancer cells stiffen during invasion into collagen I matrices, Scientific Reports 6:19686 (2016).


  1. R. Safiullin, W. Christenson, H. Owaynat, I.S. Yermolenko, M.K. Kadirov, R. Ros and T. P. Ugarova; Fibrinogen matrix deposited on the surface of biomaterials acts as a natural anti-adhesive coating, Biomaterials 67,  151-159 (2015). 


  1. S. Bhattacharya, T.-C. Chao, N. Ariyasinghe, Y. Ruiz, D. Lake, R. Ros, A. Ros; Selective trapping of single mammalian breast cancer cells by insulator-based dielectrophoresis, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406, 1855-1865 (2014).

  2. W. Christenson, I. Yermolenko, B. Plochberger, F. Camacho-Alanis, A. Ros, T.P. Ugarova, and R. Ros. Combined single cell AFM manipulation and TIRFM for probing the molecular stability of multilayer fibrinogen matrices. Ultramicroscopy (2014).


  1. O. Schulz, Z. Zhao, A. Ward, M. Koenig, F. Koberling,Y. Liu, J. Enderlein, H. Yan, and R. Ros. Tip induced fluorescence quenching for nanometer optical and topographical resolution. Optical Nanoscopy (2013).
  2. The PS-OC Cell-Line Project Team and the PS-OC Network. A physical sciences network characterization of nonmalignant and metastatic cells. Scientific Reports (2013).


  1. A. Fuhrmann, S. Getfert, Q. Fu, P. Reimann, S. Lindsay, and R. Ros. Long lifetime of hydrogen-bonded DNA basepairs by force spectroscopy. Biophysical Journal (2012).
  2. I. Ashur, O. Schulz, C. McIntosh, I. Pinkas, R. Ros, A.K. Jones. Transparent gold as a platform for adsorbed protein spectroelectrochemistry: investigation of cytochrome c and azurin. Langmuir (2012).
  3. I.S. Yermolenko, O.V. Gorkun, A. Fuhrmann, V.K. Lishko, S.P. Oshkadyerov, S.T. Lord, R. Ros, and T.P. Ugarova. The assembly of nonadhesive fibrinogen matrices depends on the alphaC regions of the fibrinogen molecule. J. Biol. Chem (2012).
  4. M.-H. Lee , P.-H. Wu , J. Staunton , R. Ros , G. Longmore, D. Wirtz. Mismatch in mechanical and adhesive properties induces pulsating cancer cell migration in epithelial monolayer. Biophysical Journal (2012).
  5. B.L. Doss, J.R. Staunton, M. Dannemeyer, M. Linhart, and R. Ros. Combined AFM nanoindentation and finite element analysis of soft heterogeneous biomaterials. Microsc. Microanal (2012).
  6. O. Schulz, Z. Zhao, A. Ward, Y. Liu, H. Yan, and R. Ros. Simultaneous atomic force and confocal Fluorescence microscopy for correlated nanometer topographical and optical resolution. Microsc. Microanal (2012).


  1. A. Fuhrmann, J. R. Staunton, V. Nandakumar, N. Banyai, P. Davies, and R. Ros. AFM stiffness nanotomography of normal, metaplastic and dysplastic human esophageal cells. Physical Biology (2011).
  2. P. Kaur, Q. Fu, A. Fuhrmann, R. Ros, L. Obenauer Kutner, L.A. Schneeweis, R. Navoa, K. Steger, L. Xie, Ch. Yonan, R. Abraham, M.J. Grace, and S. Lindsay. Antibody-unfolding and metastable-state binding in force spectroscopy and recognition imaging. Biophysical Journal (2011).
  3. S.K. Lower, S. Lamlertthon, N.N. Casillas-Ituarte, R.D. Lins, R. Yongsunthon, E.S. Taylor, A.C. DiBartola, C. Edmonson, L.M. McIntyre, L.B. Reller, Y.-A. Quee, R. Ros, B.H. Lower, and V.G. Fowler. Polymorphisms in fibronectin binding protein A of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with infection of cardiovascular devices. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2011).
  4. R. Ros. Mechanics and Interactions in DNA and RNA. Molecular Manipulation with Atomic Force Microscopy (eds. Duwez and Willet), CRC Press, 129-148 (2011).


  1. I. Yermolenko, A. Fuhrmann, S. Magonov, V. Lishko, S. Oshkadyerov, R. Ros, and T. Ugarova. Origin of the Nonadhesive Properties of Fibrinogen Matrices Probed by Force Spectroscopy. Langmuir (2010).
  2. N.P. Podolnikova, I.S. Yermolenko, A. Fuhrmann, V.K. Lishko, S. Magonov, B. Bowen, J. Enderlein, A.V. Podolnikov, R. Ros and, T.P. Ugarova. Control of integrin aIIbß3 outside-in signaling and platelet adhesion by sensing the physical properties of fibrin(ogen) substrates. Biochemistry (2010).
  3. S. Huang, J. He, S. Chang, P. Zhang, F. Liang, S. Li, M. Tuchband, A. Fuhrmann, R. Ros, and S. Lindsay. Identifying single bases in a DNA oligomer with electron tunnelling. Nature Nanotechnology (2010).
  4. Z. Deng, O. Schulz, S. Lin, B. Ding, X. Liu, X. Wei, R. Ros, H. Yan, and Y. Liu. Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc-Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Near-Infrared Emission. J. Am. Chem. Soc (2010).
  5. O. Schulz, F. Koberling, D. Walters, M. Koenig, J. Viani, R. Ros. Simultaneous single molecule atomic force and fluorescence lifetime imaging. Proc. of SPIE (2010).
  6. A. Fuhrmann and R. Ros. Single molecule force spectroscopy: a method for quantitative analysis of ligand-receptor interactions. (2010).


  1. A. Fuhrmann, J.C. Schoening, D. Anselmetti, D. Staiger, and R. Ros. Quantitative analysis of single molecule RNA-protein interaction. Biophysical Journal (2009).
  2. K. Wollschläger, K. Gaus, A. Körnig, R. Eckel, S.D. Wilking, M. McIntosh, Z. Majer, A. Becker, R. Ros, D. Anselmetti, N. Sewald. Single-Molecule Experiments to Elucidate the Minimal Requirement for DNA Recognition by Transcription Factor Epitopes. Small (2009).
  3. R. Ros and N. Hansmeier. Gene Classification and Quantitative Analysis of Gene Regulation in Bacteria using Single Cell Atomic Force Microscopy and Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy, in Single Cell Analysis. Single Cell Analysis (2009).


  1. A. Fuhrmann, S. Getfert, D. Anselmetti, P. Reimann, and R. Ros;. Refined procedure of evaluating experimental single-molecule force spectroscopy data. Phys. Rev. E (2008).
  2. D. Anselmetti, F.W. Bartels, A. Becker, B. Decker, R. Eckel, M. McIntosh, J. Mattay, P. Plattner, R. Ros, Ch. Schäfer, and N. Sewald;. Reverse Engineering of an Affinity-Switchable Molecular Interaction Characterized by AFM Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy. Langmuir (2008).

before 2008

  1. F.W. Bartels, M. McIntosh, A. Fuhrmann, Ch. Metzendorf, P. Plattner, N. Sewald, D. Anselmetti, R. Ros, and A Becker: Effector-stimulated single molecule protein-DNA interactions of a quorum sensing system in Sinorhizobium meliloti, Biophysical Journal 92, 4391-4400 (2007).
  2. V. Walhorn, O. Schulz, Ch. Pelargus, D. Anselmetti, and R. Ros: Impact of metal-modified AFM tips on the fluorescence of single nanocrystals, Proc. of SPIE 6444, 644406 (2007).
  3. C. Schäfer, R. Eckel, R. Ros, J. Mattay, and D. Anselmetti: Photochemical Single-Molecule Affinity Switch, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129,1488-1489 (2007).
  4. D. Anselmetti, N. Hansmeier, J. Kalinowski, J. Martini, T. Merkle, R. Palmisano, R. Ros, K. Schmied, A. Sischka, and K. Toensing: Analysis of Subcellular Surface Structure, Function and Dynamics, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 387, 83–89 (2007).
  5. J. Martini, W. Hellmich, D. Greif, A. Becker, T. Merkle, R. Ros, A. Ros, K.Tönsing, and D. Anselmett: Systems Nanobiology: From Quantitative Single Molecule Biophysics to Microfluidic-Based Single Cell Analysis in Subcellular Fractionation and Proteomics, Springer 301-321(2007).
  6. R. Eckel, V. Walhorn, Ch. Pelargus, J. Martini, J. Enderlein, Th. Nann, D. Anselmetti, and R. Ros; Fluorescence emission control of single CdSe nanocrystals using gold-modified AFM tips, Small 3, 44-49 (2007).
  7. N. Sewald, S.D. Wilking, R. Eckel, S. Albu, K. Wollschläger, K. Gaus, A. Becker, F.W. Bartels, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti; Probing DNA-peptide interaction forces on the single molecule level, J. Pept. Sci. 12, 160 (2006). 
  8. H G Frey, C Bolwien, A Brandenburg, R Ros, and D Anselmetti; Optimized aperture-less optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution, Nanotechnology 17, 3105–3110 (2006) 
  9. M. Raible, M. Evstigneev, F. W. Bartels, R. Eckel, M.Nguyen-Duong, R. Merkel, R. Ros, D. Anselmetti, and P. Reimann: Theoretical analysis of single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments: heterogeneity of chemical bonds, Biophysical Journal 90, 3851-3864 (2006). 
  10. R. Eckel, V. Walhorn, Ch. Pelargus, J. Martini, Th. Nann, D. Anselmetti, and R. Ros; Combined TIRF-AFM Setup: Controlled Quenching of Individual Quantum Dots, Proc. of SPIE 6092, 609209 (2006). 
  11. N. Hansmeier, A. Albersmeier, A. Tauch, Th. Damberg, R. Ros, D. Anselmetti, A. Pühler, and J. Kalinowski; The S-layer gene cspB of Corynebacterium glutamicum is transcriptionally activated by a LuxR-type regulator and located on a 6 kb genomic island from the type strain ATCC13032: Microbiology 152, 923-935 (2006).
  12. S. Garcia-Manyes, I. Bucior, R. Ros, D. Anselmetti, F. Sanz, M.M. Burger, and X. Fernàndez-Busquets: Allotypic forms of cell adhesion glycans can discriminate self from non-self through strong specific interactions; Journal of Biological Chemistry 281, 5992-5999 (2006).
  13. W. Hellmich, J. Regtmeier, T.T. Duong, R. Ros, D. Anselmetti, A. Ros: Poly(ethyleneoxide) Based Surface Coatings for Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microchannels; Langmuir 21:7551-7557 (2005). 
  14. R. Eckel, S. D. Wilking, A. Becker, N. Sewald, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti: Single Molecule Experiments in Synthetic Biology – A New Approach for the Affinity Ranking of DNA-binding Peptides; Ang.Chem. Int. Ed.44: 3921 – 3924 (2005). R. Eckel, S. D. Wilking, A. Becker, N. Sewald, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti: Einzelmolekülexperimente in der synthetischen Biologie – ein Ansatz für das Affinitätsranking DNA-bindender Peptide; Ang.Chem. 117: 3989 – 3993 (2005). 
  15. D. Anselmetti, N. Griemla, W. Hellmich, K. Leffhalm, A. Ros, R. Ros, A. Sischka, and K. Tönsing: Single Cell Analytics for NanoBiology; Nanobiotechnology 1, 267-270 (2005)
  16. C. Haumann, J. Toquant, Ch. Pelargus, H. Frey, R. Ros, D. Pohl, and D. Anselmetti: Stand-alone device for the electrolytic fabrication of scanning near-field optical microscopy aperture probes; Review of Scientific Instruments 76: 033704 (2005). 
  17. Gesthuizen, A. Huerta Miguelanez, R. Ros, and N. Bahlawane: Chemical vapor deposition of nickel thin films of glass using nickel acetylacetonate; Proceedings of the Electrochemical Society, 9, 659-666 (2005).
  18. A. Sischka, K. Toensing, R. Eckel, S. D. Wilking, N. Sewald, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti: Molecular mechanisms and kinetics between DNA and DNA binding ligands; Biophysical Journal 88: 404-411 (2005). 
  19. R. Eckel, R. Ros, B. Decker, J. Mattay, and D. Anselmetti: Supramolecular Chemistry at the Single Molecule Level; Ang. Chemie Int. Ed. 44: 484-488 (2005). 
  20. R. Eckel, R. Ros, B. Decker, J. Mattay, and D. Anselmetti: Supramolekulare Chemie mit einzelnen Molekülen; Ang.Chem. 117: 489 – 492 (2005).
  21. B. Baumgarth, F:W. Bartels, D. Anselmetti, A. Becker, and R. Ros: Detailed studies of the binding mechanism of the Sinorhizobium meliloti transcriptional activator ExpG to DNA Microbiology 151: 259-268 (2005). 
  22. R. Ros, R. Eckel, F. Bartels, A. Sischka, B. Baumgarth, S.D. Wilking, A. Pühler, N. Sewald, A. Becker, and D. Anselmetti: Single molecule force spectroscopy on ligand-DNA complexes: From molecular binding mechanisms to biosensor applications; Journal of Biotechnology 112: 5-12 (2004). 
  23. N. Hansmeier, F.W. Bartels, R. Ros, D. Anselmetti, A. Tauch, A. Pühler, J. Kalinowski: Classification of hyper-variable Corynebacterium glutamicum surface-layer proteins by sequence analyses and atomic force microscopy; Journal of Biotechnology 112: 177-193 (2004).
  24. M. Raible, M. Evstigneev, P. Reimann, F.W. Bartels, and R. Ros: Theoretical analysis of dynamic force spectroscopy experiments; Journal of Biotechnology 112:13-23 (2004).
  25. P. Siffalovic, M. Michelswirth, P. Bartz, B. Decker, C. Agena, C. Schäfer, S. Molter, R. Ros, M. Bach, M. Neumann, D. Anselmetti, J. Mattay, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher: Large-scale homogeneous molecular templates for femtosecond time-resolved studies of the guest-host interaction; Journal of Biotechnology 112: 139–149 (2004).
  26. H. Kleine, R. Wilke, Ch. Pelargus, K. Rott, A. Pühler, G. Reiss, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti: Absence of intrinsic electric conductivity in single dsDNA molecules; Journal of Biotechnology 112: 91–95 (2004).
  27. A. Sischka, R. Eckel, K. Toensing, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti: Compact, microscope based optical tweezers system for molecular manipulation; Review of Scientific Instruments 74: 4827-4831 (2003).
  28. F.W. Bartels, B. Baumgarth, D. Anselmetti, R. Ros, and A. Becker: Specific Binding of the Regulatory Protein ExpG to Promoter Regions of the Galactoglucan Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Sinorhizobium meliloti - A Combined Molecular Biology and Force Spectroscopy Investigation; Journal of Structural Biology 143: 145-152 (2003).
  29. T. Duong, M. Streek, R. Ros, F. Schmid, A. Ros, D. Anselmetti: Gel-free electrophoresis of lambda- and T2-DNA in structured microfluidic devices; Proceedings of µTAS 1, 749-752 (2003).
  30. R. Eckel, R. Ros, A. Ros, S.D. Wilking, N. Sewald and D. Anselmetti: Identification of Binding Mechanisms in Single Molecule - DNA Complexes; Biophysical Journal 85: 1968-1973 (2003).
  31. T.T. Duong, G. Kim, R. Ros, M. Streek, F. Schmid, J. Brugger, D. Anselmetti, and A. Ros: Size Dependent Free Solution DNA Electrophoresis in Structured Micro Fluidic Systems; Microelectronic Engineering 67-68C: 905 - 912 ( 2003 ).
  32. L. Tiefenauer and R. Ros; Biointerface analysis on a molecular level: New tools for biosensor research; Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 23: 95-114 (2002).
  33. F. Schwesinger, R. Ros, T. Strunz, D. Anselmetti, H.-J. Güntherodt, A. Honegger, L. Jermutus, L. Tiefenauer and A. Plückthun: Unbinding forces of single antibody-antigen complexes correlate with their thermal dissociation rates; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 9972-9977 (2000).
  34. R. Ros, F. Schwesinger, C. Padeste, A. Plückthun, D. Anselmetti, H.-J. Güntherodt, L. Tiefenauer: SPM for Functional Identification of Individual Biomolecules;  Proceedings of SPIE 3607 84-89: (1999).
  35. E. zur Mühlen, P. Koschinski, R. Ros, E. Haltner, S. Gehrig, C. M. Lehr, L. Tiefenauer, F. Schwesinger, A. Pückthun, U. Hartmann: Force Microscopy on Cells to Measure Bioadhesion; in Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems, Marcel Dekker, 197-221 (1999).
  36. R. Ros, F. Schwesinger, D. Anselmetti, M. Kubon, R. Schäfer, A. Plückthun, and L. Tiefenauer: Antigen binding forces of individually addressed single-chain Fv antibody molecules;  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  95: 7402-7405 (1998). 
  37. R. Ros Seigel, P. Harder, R. Dahint, M. Grunze, F. Josse, M. Mrksich and G.M.Whitesides: On-Line Detection of Nonspecific Protein Adsorption at Artificial Surfaces;  Anal. Chem.:  69, 3321-3328 (1997).
  38. R. Dahint, R. Ros Seigel, P. Harder, M. Grunze and F. Josse: Detection of non-specific protein adsorption at artificial surfaces by the use of acoustic plate mode sensors;  Sensors and Actuators B: 35-36, 497-505 (1996).