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  1. Fahsbender, E., Burns, J.M., Kim, S., Kraberger, S., Frankfurter, G., Eilers, A., Shero, M., Beltran, R., Kirkham, A., McCorkell, R., Berngartt, R., Male, M.F., Ballard, G., Ainley, D.G., Breitbart, M., Varsani, A. (2017) Diverse and highly recombinant anelloviruses associated with Weddell seals in Antarctica. Virus Evolution. 3:vex017

  2. Nonis, J., Premaratne, A., Billington, C., Varsani, A. (2017) Genome of a podovirus (AAPEc6) isolated from wastewater in New Zealand that infects Escherichia coli O45:H10. Genome Announcements. 5: e00462-17

  3. Boukari, W., Alcalá-Briseño, R.I., Kraberger, S., Fernandez, E., Filloux, D., Daugrois, J-H., Comstock, J.C., Lett, J-M., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A., Roumagnac, P., Polston, J.E., Rott, P.C. (2017) Occurrence of a novel mastrevirus in sugarcane germplasm collections in Florida, Guadeloupe and Réunion. Virology Journal. 14:e146

  4. Kraberger, S., Saumtally, S., Pande, D., Khoodoo, M.H.R., Dhayan, S., Dookun-Saumtally, A., Shepherd, D.N., Hartnady, P., Atkinson, A., Lakay, F., Hanson, B., Redhi, D., Monjane, A.L., Windram, O., Walter, M., Oluwafemi, O., Michel-Lett, J., Lefeurve, P., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2017) Molecular diversity, geographic distribution and host range of monocot-infecting mastreviruses in Africa and surrounding islands. Virus Research. 238: 171-178

  5. Kraberger, S., Geering, A.D.W., Walters, M., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2017) Novel mastreviruses identified in Australian wild rice. Virus Research. 238: 193-197

  6. Adams, M.J., Lefkowitz, E.J. King, A.M.Q., Harrach, B., Harrison, R., Knowles, N.J., Kropinski, A.M., Krupovic, M., Kuhn, J.H., Mushegian, A.R., Nibert, M., Sabanadzovic, S., Sanfaçon, H., Siddell, S.G., Simmonds, P., Varsani, A., Zerbini, F.M., Gorbalenya, A.E., Davison, A.J. (2017) Changes to taxonomy and the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology. 162:2505–2538

  7. Susi, H., Laine, A-L., Filloux, D., Kraberger, S., Farkas, K., Bernardo, P., Frilander, M.J., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A., Roumagnac, P. (2017) Genome sequences of a capulavirus infecting Plantago lanceolata in the Åland archipelago of Finland. Archives of Virology. 162: 2041-2045

  8. Varsani, A., Roumagnac, P., Fuchs, M., Navas-Castillo, J., Moriones, E., Idris, A., Briddon, R.W., Rivera-Bustamante, R., Zerbini, F.M., Martin, D.P. (2017) Capulavirus and Grablovirus: Two new genera in the family Geminiviridae. Archives of Virology. 162: 1819-1831

  9. Kraberger, S., Polston, J.E., Capobianco, H.M., Alcalá-Briseño, R.I., Fontenele, R.S., Varsani, A. (2017) Genomovirus genomes recovered from Echinothrips americanus sampled in Florida, USA. Genome Announcements. 5:e00445-17

  10. Ouattara, A., Tiendrébéogo, F., Lefeuvre, P., Hoareau, M., Traoré, E.V., Barro, N., Traoré, O., Varsani, A., Lett, J-M. (2017) New strains of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus discovered on papaya and tomato in Burkina Faso. Archives of Virology. 162: 1791-1794

  11. Najar, A., Hamdi, I., Varsani, A. (2017) Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 56, 111−118

  12. Postler, T.S., Clawson, A.N., Amarasinghe, G.K., Basler, C.F., Bavari, S., Benkő, M., Blasdell, K.R., Briese, T., Buchmeier, M.J., Bukreyev, A., Calisher, C.H., Chandran, K., Charrel, R., Clegg, C.S., Collins, P.L., de la Torre, J. C., DeRisi, J.L., Dietzgen, R.G., Dolnik, O., Dürrwald, R., Dye, J.M., Easton, A J., Emonet, S., Formenty, P., Fouchier, R. A. M., Ghedin, E., Gonzalez, J.-P., Harrach, B., Hewson, R., Horie, M., Jiāng, D., Kobinger, G., Kondo, H., Kropinski, A.M., Krupovic, M., Kurath, G., Lamb, R.A., Leroy, E.M., Lukashevich, I.S., Maisner, A., Mushegian, A.R., Netesov, S.V., Nowotny, N., Patterson, J.L., Payne, S.L., Paweska, J.T., Peters, C.J., Radoshitzky, S.R., Rima, B.K., Romanowski, V., Rubbenstroth, D., Sabanadzovic, S., Sanfaçon, H., Salvato, M. S., Schwemmle, M., Smither, S.J., Stenglein, M.D., Stone, D.M., Takada, A., Tesh, R.B., Tomonaga, K., Tordo, N., Towner, J.S., Vasilakis, N., Volchkov, V.E., Wahl-Jensen, V., Walker, P.J., Wang, L.F., Varsani, A., Whitfield, A.E., Zerbini, F.M., Kuhn, J.H. (2017). Possibility and challenges of conversion of current virus species names to Linnaean binomials. Systematic Biology. 66 (3): 463-473

  13. Heydarnejad, J., Kamali, M., Massumi, H., Kvarnheden, A., Male, M.F., Kraberger. S., Stainton, D., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2017) Identification of a nanovirus-alphasatellite complex in Sophora alopecuroides. Virus Research. 235: 24-32

  14. Adams, M.J., Lefkowitz, E.J. King, A.M.Q., Harrach, B., Harrison, R., Knowles, N.J., Kropinski, A.M., Krupovic, M., Kuhn, J.H., Mushegian, A.R., Nibert, M., Sabanadzovic, S., Sanfaçon, H., Siddell, S.G., Simmonds, P., Varsani, A., Zerbini, F.M., Orton, R.J., Smith, D.B., Gorbalenya, A.E., Davison, A.J. (2017) 50 years of formal virus taxonomy: overview and prospects. Archives of Virology. 162: 1441-1446

  15. Varsani, A., Frankfurter, G., Stainton, D., Male, M.F., Kraberger, S., Burns, J.M. (2017) Identification of a polyomavirus in a Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) from the Ross Sea (Antarctica). Archives of Virology 162: 1403-1407

  16. Rosario, K., Breitbart, M., Harrach, B., Segalés, J., Delwart, E., Biagini, P., Varsani, A. (2017) Revisiting the taxonomy of the family Circoviridae: Establishment of the genus Cyclovirus and removal of the genus Gyrovirus. Archives of Virology 162:1447-1463

  17. Godinhoa, M.T., Paula, D.P., Varsani, A., Ribeiro, S.G. (2017) Genome sequence of Cauliflower mosaic virus identified in earwigs (Doru luteipes) through a metagenomic approach. Genome Announcements. 11: e00043-17

  18. Pang, L., Robson, B., Farkas, K., McGill, E., Varsani, A., Gillot, L., Li, J., Abraham, P. (2017) Tracking effluent discharges in undisturbed stony soil and alluvial gravel aquifer using synthetic DNA tracers. Science of the Total Environment. 492: 144-152

  19. Zerbini, F.M., Briddon, R.W., Idris, A., Martin, D.P., Moriones, E., Navas-Castillo, J., Rivera-Bustamante, R., Rougmanac. P., Varsani, A., ICTV Report Consortium (2017) ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Geminiviridae. Journal of General virology. 98:131–133

  20. Stainton, D., Martin, D.P., Collings, D.A., Varsani, A. (2017) Comparative analyses of common regions found in babuviruses and alphasatellite molecules. Archives of Virology. 162:849-855

  21. Walters, M., Bawuro, M., Christopher, A., Knight, A., Kraberger, S., Stainton, D., Chapman, H., Varsani, A. (2017) Novel single-stranded DNA virus genomes recovered from chimpanzee faeces sampled from Mambilla Plateau in Nigeria. Genome Announcements. 5: e01715-16

  22. Kamali, M., Heydarnejad, J., Pouramini, N., Masumi, H., Farkas, K., Kraberger, S., Varsani, A. (2017) Genome sequences of Beet curly top Iran virus, Oat dwarf virus, Turnip curly top virus, and Wheat dwarf virus identified in leafhoppers. Genome Announcements. 5: e01674-16.

  23. Simmonds, P., Adams, M. J., Benkő, M., Breitbart, M., Brister, J. R., Carstens, E. B., Davison, A. J., Delwart, E., Gorbalenya, A. E., Harrach, B., Hull, R., King, A. M. Q., Koonin., E. V., Krupovic, M., Kuhn, J. H., Lefkowitz, E. J., Nibert, M. L., Orton, R., Roossinck, M. J., Sabanadzovic, S., Sullivan, M. B., Suttle, C. A., Tesh, R. B., van der Vlugt, R. A., Varsani, A., Zerbini, F. M. (2017). Virus taxonomy in the age of metagenomics. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 15: 161-168.

  24. Kazlauskas, D., Dayaram, A., Kraberger, S., Goldstien, S., Varsani, A., Krupovic, M. (2017) Evolutionary history of ssDNA bacilladnaviruses features horizontal acquisition of the capsid protein gene from ssRNA nodaviruses. Virology. 204: 114-121.

  25. Pande, D., Madzokere, E., Hartnady, P., Kraberger, S., Hadfield, J., Rosario, K., Jäschke. A., Monjane, A.L., Dida, M.M., Shepherd, D.N., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A., Harkins, G.W. (2017) The role of Kenya in the trans-African spread of maize streak virus strain A. Virus Research. 232: 69-76.

  26. Varsani, A., Krupovic, M. (2017) Sequence-based taxonomic framework for the classification of uncultured single-stranded DNA viruses of the family Genomoviridae. Virus Evolution. 3: vew037.


  1. Mabvakure, B., Martin, D.P., Kraberger, S., Cloete, L., van Brunschot, S., Geering, A.D., Thomas, J.E., Bananej, K., Lett, J-M., Lefeuvre, P., Varsani, A., Harkins, G.W. (2016) Ongoing geographical spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus. Virology. 498: 257–264

  2. Lamas, N.S., Fontenele, R.S., Melo, F.L., Costa, A.F., Varsani, A., Ribeiro, S.G. (2016) Complete sequence of a genomovirus associated with common bean plant leaves in Brazil. Genome Announcements. 4:e01247-16

  3. Bananej, K., Kraberger, K., Varsani, A. (2016) Okra enation leaf curl virus in papaya from Iran displaying severe leaf curl symptoms. Journal of Plant Pathology 98, 637-639

  4. Frost, C.M., Peralta. G., Rand, T.A., Didham, R.K., Varsani, A., Tylianakis, J. (2016) Apparent competition drives community-wide attack rates across ecosystem boundaries. Nature Communications. 7: e12644

  5. De Bruyn, A., Harimalala, M., Zinga, I., Mabvakure, B.M., Hoareau, M., Ravigné, V., Walters, M., Reynaud, B., Varsani, A., Harkins, G.W., Martin, D.P., Lett, J-M., Lefeuvre, P. (2016) Divergent evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of cassava mosaic geminiviruses in Madagascar. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 16: e182

  6. Adams, M.J., Lefkowitz, E.J., King, A.M.Q., Harrach, B., Harrison, R.L., Knowles, N.J., Kropinski, A.M., Krupovic, M., Kuhn, J.H., Mushegian, A.R., Nibert, M., Sabanadzovic, S., Sanfaçon, H., Siddell, S.G., Simmonds, P., Varsani, A., Zerbini, F.M., Gorbalenya, A.E., Davison, A.J. (2016) Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2016). Archives of Virology. 161:2921–2949

  7. Krupovic, M., Ghabrial, S.A., Jiang, D., Varsani, A. (2016) Genomoviridae: a new family of widespread single-stranded DNA viruses. Archives of virology. 161:2633–2643

  8. Steel, O., Kraberger, S., Sikorski, A., Young, L.M., Catchpole, R.J., Stevens, A.J., Ladley, J.J., Coray, D.S., Stainton, D., Dayaram, A., Julian, L., van Bysterveldt, K., Varsani, A. (2016) Circular replication-associated protein encoding DNA viruses identified in the faecal matter of various animals in New Zealand. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 43, 151-164

  9. Khalifa, M., Varsani, A., Ganley, A.R.D., Pearson, M.N. (2016) Comparison of Illumina de novo assembled and Sanger sequenced viral genomes: A case study for RNA viruses recovered from the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Virus Research. 219, 51-57

  10. Buck, C., Van Doorslaer, K., Peretti, A.,Geoghegan, E.M., Tisza, M.J., An, P., Katz, J.P., Pipas, J.M., McBride, A.A., Camus, A.C., McDermott, A.J., Dill, J.A., Delwart., E., Ng., T.F.F., Farkas, K., Austin, C., Kraberger, S., Davison, W., Pastrana, D.V., Varsani, A. (2016) The ancient evolutionary history of polyomaviruses. PloS Pathogens. 12(4): e1005574

  11. Howles, P.A., Gebbie, L.K., Collings, D.A., Varsani, A., Broad, R.C., Ohms, S., Birch, R.J., Cork, A.H., Arioli, T., Williamson, R.E. (2016) A temperature-sensitive allele of a putative mRNA splicing helicase down-regulates many cell wall genes and causes radial swelling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Molecular Biology. 91(1):1-13

  12. Bernardo, P., Muhire, B., François, S., Deshoux, M., Hartnady, P., Farkas, K., Kraberger, K., Filloux, D., Fernandez, E., Galzi, S., Ferdinand, R., Granier, M., Marais, A., Monge Blasco, P., Candresse, T., Escriu, F., Varsani, A., Harkins, G.W., Martin, D.P., Roumagnac, P. (2016) Molecular characterization and prevalence of two capulaviruses: Alfalfa leaf curl virus from France and Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus from South Africa. Virology. 493, 142-153

  13. Stainton, D., Martin, D.P., Collings, D.A., Thomas, J.E., Varsani, A. (2016) Identification of defective molecules associated with isolates of Banana bunchy top virus. Archives of Virology. 161, 1019–1026

  14. Knafler, G.J., Ortiz-Catedral, L., Jackson, B., Varsani, A., Grueber, C.E., Robertson, B.C., Jamieson, I.G. (2016) Comparison of beak and feather disease virus prevalence and immunity-associated genetic diversity over time in an island population of red-crowned parakeets. Archives of Virology. 161, 811–820

  15. Jennings, S., Varsani, A., Dugger, K.M., Ballard, G., Ainley, D.G. (2016) Sex-based differences in Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth rates and diet. PloS One. 11, e0149090

  16. Kamali, M., Heydarnejad, J., Massumi, H., Kvarnheden, A., Kraberger, S., Varsani, A. (2016) Molecular diversity of turncurtoviruses in Iran. Archives of Virology. 161, 551-561

  17. Male, M.F., Kraberger, S., Stainton, D., Kami, V., Varsani, A. (2016) Cycloviruses, gemycircularviruses and other novel replication-associated protein encoding circular viruses in Pacific flying fox (Pteropus tonganus) faeces. Infection, genetics and evolution. 39, 279-292

  18. Dayaram, A., Galatowitsch, M.L., Argüello-Astorga, G.R., van Bysterveldt, K., Kraberger, S., Stainton, D., Harding, J.S., Roumagnac, P., Martin, D.P., Lefeuvre, P., Varsani, A. (2016) Diverse circular replication-associated protein encoding viruses circulating in invertebrates within a lake ecosystem. Infection, genetics and evolution. 39, 304-316

  19. Rosario, K., Marr, C., Varsani, A., Kraberger, S., Stainton, D., Moriones, E., Polston, J.E., Breitbart, M. (2016) Begomovirus-associated satellite DNA diversity captured through vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM) surveys using whiteflies (Aleyrodidae). Viruses. 8, e36.

  20. Marinov, M., Amaya-Perilla, C., Holwell, G.I., Varsani, A., van Bysterveldt, K., Kraberger, S., Stainton, D., Dayaram, A., Curtis, N., Cruickshank, R.H., Paterson, A. (2016) Geometric morphometrics and molecular systematics of Xanthocnemis sobrina (McLachlan, 1873) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) and comparison to its congeneric. Zootaxa. 4078 (1), 84-120


  1. Stainton, D., Martin, D.P., Muhire, B.M., Lolohea, S., Halafihi, M., Lepoint, P., Blomme, B., Crew, K.S., Sharman, M., Kraberger, S., Dayaram, A., Walters, M., Collings, D.A., Mabvakure, B., Lemey, P., Harkins, G.W., Thomas, J.E., Varsani, A. (2015) The global distribution of Banana bunchy top virus reveals little evidence for frequent recent, human-mediated long distance dispersal events. Virus Evolution. 1(1):1-16 vev009

  2. Esmaeili, M., Heydarnejad, J., Massumi, H., Varsani, A. (2015) Analysis of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus and tomato leaf curl Palampur virus mixed and pseudo-recombination infections. Virus Genes 51, 408–416

  3. Rosario, K., Seah, Y.M., Marr, C., Varsani, A., Kraberger, S., Stainton, D., Moriones, E. Polston, J.E., Duffy, S., Breitbart, M. (2015) Vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM) surveys using whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) reveal novel begomovirus species in the New and Old Worlds. Viruses. 7: 5553–5570

  4. Roumagnac, P., Granier, M., Bernardo, P., Deshoux, M., Ferdinand, R., Galzi, S., Fernandez, E., Julian, C., Abt, I., Filloux, D., Mesléard, F., Varsani, A., Blanc, S., Martin, D.P., Peterschmitt, M. (2015) Alfalfa leaf curl virus: An aphid transmitted geminivirus. Journal of Virology. 89: 9683-9688

  5. Kumari, S., Najar, A., Timoumi, S., Male, M.F., Kraberger, S., Varsani, A. (2015) First report of Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus naturally infecting chickpea in Tunisia. New Disease Reports. 32, 16

  6. Make, M.F., Kami, V., Kraberger, S., Varsani, A. (2015) Genomes of Poaceae-associated gemycirularviruses from the Pacific Ocean Island of Tonga. Genome Announcements. 3: e01144-15

  7. Dayaram, A., Piasecki, T., Chrząstek, K., White, R., Julian, L., van Bysterveldt, K., Varsani, A. (2015) Avian polyomavirus genome sequences recovered from parrots in captive breeding facilities in Poland. Genome Announcements. 3: e00986-15

  8. Jackson, B., Varsani, A., Holyoake, C., Jakob-Hoff, R., Roberson, I., McInnes, K., Empson, R., Gray, R., Nakagawa, K., Warren, K. (2015) Emerging infectious disease or evidence of endemicity? A multi season study of Beak and feather disease virus in wild Red-crowned Parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae). Archives of Virology. 160: 2283-2351

  9. Fahsbender, E., Hewson, I., Rosario, K., Tuttle, A.D., Varsani, A., Breitbart, M. (2015) Discovery of a novel circular DNA virus in the Forbes sea star, Asterias forbesi. Archives of Virology 160:2349-2351

  10. Farkas, K., Varsani, A., Pang, L. (2015) Adsorption of rotavirus, MS2 bacteriophage and surface-modified silica nanoparticles to hydrophobic matter. Food and Environmental Virology. 7: 261-268

  11. Stenzel, T., Farkas, K., Varsani, A. (2015) Genome of a diverse Goose circovirus recovered from greylag goose. Genome announcements. 3:e00767-15

  12. Jackson, B., Heath, A., Harvey, C., Holyoake, C., Jakob-Hoff, R., Varsani, A., Roberson, I., Warren, K. (2015) Knemidokoptinid (Epidermoptidae: Knemidokoptinae) mite infestation in wild red-crowned parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae): correlations between macroscopic and microscopic findings. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 51: 651-663

  13. Stainton, D., Halafihi, M., Collings D. A., Varsani, A. (2015) Genome of Banana streak MY virus from the Pacific Ocean island of Tonga. Genome announcements. 3: e00543-15

  14. Brown, J.K., Zerbini, F.M., Navaz-Castillo, J., Moriones, E., Ramos-Sobrinho, R., Silva, J.C.F., Fiallo-Olivé, E., Briddon, R.W., Hernández-Zepeda, C., Idris, A., Malathi, V.G., Martin, D.P., Rivera-Bustamante., R., Ueda, S., Varsani, A. (2015) Revision of Begomovirus taxonomy based on pairwise sequence comparisons. Archives of Virology. 160:1593–1619

  15. Collings, D.A., Collings, B.G., Julian, L., Kurenbach, B., Varsani A. (2015) Genome sequences of Beak and feather disease virus in urban Rainbow lorikeets (Trichoglossus haematodus). Genome Announcements. 3: e00283-15

  16. Kraberger, S., Farkas, K., Bernardo, P., Booker, C., Argüello-Astorga, G.R., Mesléard, F., Martin, D.P., Roumagnac, P., Varsani, A. (2015) Identification of novel Bromus and Trifolium associated circular DNA viruses. Archives of Virology. 160: 1303-1311

  17. Varsani, A., Porzig, E.L., Jennings, S., Kraberger, S., Farkas, K., Julian, L., Massaro, M., Ballard, G., Ainley, A.G. (2015) Identification of an avian polyomavirus associated with Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). Journal of General Virology. 96: 851-857

  18. Dayaram, A., Goldstien, S., Argüello-Astorga, G. R., Zawar-Reza, P., Gomez, C., Harding, J.S., Varsani, A. (2015) Diverse small circular DNA viruses circulating amongst estuarine molluscs. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 31: 284-295

  19. Kraberger, S., Mumtaz, H., Claverie, S., Martin, D.P., Briddon, R., Varsani, A. (2015) Identification of an Australian-like dicot-infecting mastrevirus in Pakistan. Archives of Virology. 160: 825-830

  20. Peralta. G., Frost, C.M., Didham, R.K., Varsani, A., Tylianakis, J.M. (2015) Phylogenetic diversity and co-evolutionary signals among trophic levels change across a habitat edge. Journal of Animal Ecology. 84: 364-372

  21. Kraberger, S., Argüello-Astorga, G. R., Greenfield, L.G., Galilee, C., Law, D., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2015) Characterisation of a diverse range of circular replication-associated protein encoding DNA viruses recovered from a sewage treatment oxidation pond. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 31: 73-86

  22. Oppong, A., Offei, S.K., Ofori, K., Adu-Dapaah, H., Lamptey, J.N.L., Kurenbach, B., Walters, M., Shepherd, D.N., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2015) Mapping the distribution of Maize streak virus genotypes across the forest and transition zones of Ghana. Archives of Virology. 160:483-492

  23. Dayaram, A., Potter, K., Pailes, R., Marinov, M., Rosenstein, D.D., Varsani, A (2015) Identification of diverse circular single-stranded DNA viruses in adult dragonflies and damselflies (Insecta: Odonata) of Arizona and Oklahoma, USA. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 30: 278-287

  24. Farkas, K., Varsani, A., Marjoshi, D., Easingwood, R, McGill, E., Pang, L. (2015) Size exclusion-based purification and PCR-based quantitation of MS2 bacteriophage particles for environmental applications. Journal of Virological Methods. 213: 135-138

  25. Kraberger, S., Kumari, S.G., Hamed, A.A., Gronenborn, B., Thomas, J. E., Sharman, M., Harkins, G.W., Muhire, B.M., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2015) Molecular diversity of Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus in Sudan: high rates of intra-species recombination a driving force in the emergence of new strains. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 29: 203-215


  1. Ng, T.F.F., Chen, L-F., Zhou, Y., Shapiro, B., Stiller, M., Heintzman, P.D., Varsani, A., Kondov, N.O., Wong, W., Deng, X., Andrews, T.D., Moorman, B. J., Meulendyk, T., MacKay, G., Gilbertson, R., Delwart, E. (2014) Preservation of viral genomes in 700-y-old caribou feces from a subarctic ice patch. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (47): 16842-16847

  2. Muhire, B.M., Varsani, A., Martin, D.P. (2014) SDT: A Virus Classification Tool Based on Pairwise Sequence Alignment and Identity Calculation. PLoS One 9 (9): e108277

  3. Oluwafemi, S., Kraberger, S., Shepherd, D.N., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2014) A high degree of African streak virus diversity within Nigerian maize fields includes a new mastrevirus species from Axonopus compressus. Archives of virology 159: 2765-2770

  4. Shepherd, D.N., Dugdale, B., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A., Lakay, F.M., Bezuidenhout, M.E., Monjane, A.L., Thomson, J.A., Dale, J.L., Rybicki, E.P. (2014) Inducible resistance to Maize streak virus. PLoS One 9(8): e105932

  5. Massumi, H., Poormohammadi, S., Pishyar, S., Maddahian, M., Heydarnejad, J., Hosseini-Pour, A., van Bysterveldt, K., Varsani, A (2014) Molecular characterization and field survey of Iranian potato virus X isolates. VirusDisease  25:338-344

  6. Jackson, B., Harvey, C., Galbraith, J., Robertson, M., Warren, K., Holyoake, C., Julian, L., Varsani, A. (2014) Clinical beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) infection in wild juvenile eastern rosellas of New Zealand; biosecurity implications for wildlife care facilities. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 62: 297-301

  7. Jackson, B., Lorenzo, A., Theuerkauf, J., Barnard, A., Ducal, T., Guichard, P., Bloc, H., Baouma, A., Stainton, D., Kraberger, A., Murphy, S., Clark, N., Dillon, C., Knight, T., Varsani, A. (2014) Preliminary surveillance for beak and feather disease virus in wild parrots of New Caledonia: implications of a reservoir species for Ouvea Parakeets. EMU Journal 114: 283–289

  8. Amaya-Perilla, C., Marinov, M., Holwell, G., Varsani, A., Stainton, D., Kraberger, S., Dayaram, A., Curtis, N., Cruickshank, R., Paterson, A. (2014) Comparative study of the Chatham Islands Odonata, II: Morphometric and molecular comparison between Xanthocnemis tuanuii Rowe, 1981 and X. zealandica (McLachlan, 1873) with notes on the taxonomic position of Xanthocnemis sinclairi Rowe, 1987 (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). International Dragonfly Fund - Report 75: 1-27

  9. Candresse, T., Filloux,D., Muhire, B., Julian, C., Galzi, S., Fort, G., Bernardo, P., Daugrois,J.H., Fernandez, E., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A., Roumagnac, P. (2014) Appearances can be deceptive: Revealing a hidden viral infection with deep sequencing in a plant quarantine context. PLoS One 9(7): e102945

  10. Varsani, A., Navaz-Castillo, J., Moriones, E., Hernández-Zepeda, C., Idris, A., Brown, J.K., Zerbini, F.M., Martin, D.P. (2014) Establishment of three new genera in the family Geminiviridae: Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus. Archives of Virology 159:2193-2203

  11. Varsani, A., Martin, D.P., Navaz-Castillo, J., Moriones, E., Hernández-Zepeda, C., Idris, A., Zerbini, F.M., Brown, J.K. (2014) Revisiting the classification of curtoviruses based on genome-wide pairwise identity. Archives of Virology 159:1873–1882

  12. Pang, L., Farkas, K., Bennett, G., Varsani, A., Easingwood, R., Tilley, R., Nowostawska, U., Lin, S. (2014) Mimicking filtration and transport of rotavirus and adenovirus in sand media using DNA-labelled, protein-coated silica nanoparticles. Water Research 62:167-179

  13. Monjane, A.L., Martin, P., Lakay, F., Muhire, B., Pande, P., Varsani, A., Harkins, G., Shepherd, D.N., Rybicki, E.P. (2014) Extensive recombination–induced disruption of genetic interactions is highly deleterious but can be partially reversed by small numbers of secondary-recombination events. Journal of Virology 88 (14): 7843-7851

  14. Zawar-Reza, P., Argüello-Astorga, G. R., Kraberger, S., Julian, L., Stainton, D., Broady, P., Varsani, A. (2014) Diverse small circular single-stranded DNA viruses identified in a freshwater pond on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Antarctica). Infection, Genetics and Evolution 26: 132-138

  15. Du, Z., Tang, Y., Zhang, S., She, X., Lan, G., Varsani, A., He, Z. (2014) Identification and molecular characterization of a single-stranded circular DNA virus with similarities to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA 1. Archives of Virology 159:1527–1531

  16. Varsani, A., Kraberger, S., Jennings, S., Porzig, E.L., Julian, L., Massaro, M., Pollard, A., Ballard, G., Ainley, A.G. (2014) A novel papillomavirus in Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) faeces sampled at the Cape Crozier colony, Antarctica. Journal of General Virology 95: 1352-1365

  17. Stenzel, T., Piasecki, T., Chrząstek, K., Julian, L., Muhire, B.M., Golden, M., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2014) Pigeon circoviruses display patterns of recombination, genomic secondary structure and selection similar to those of Beak and feather disease viruses. Journal of General Virology 95: 1338-1351

  18. Grigoras, I., del Cueto Ginzo, A.I., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A., Romero, J., Mammadov, A.C., Huseynova, I.M., Aliyev, J.A., Kheyr-Pour, A., Huss, H., Zibell, H., Timchenko, T., Vetten, H-J., Gronenborn, B. (2014) Genome complexity and evidence of recombination and reassortment in nanoviruses from Europe. Journal of General Virology. 95: 1178-1191

  19. Baron, H.R., Howe, L., Varsani, A., Doneley, R.J.T. (2014) Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Mellopsittacus undulates) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel Polyomavirus and avian malaria infection. Avian Diseases 58:111-117

  20. Dayaram, A., Galatowitsch, M., Harding, J.S., Argüello-Astorga, G.R., Varsani, A. (2014) Novel circular DNA viruses identified in Procordulia grayi and Xanthocnemis zealandica larvae. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 22: 134-141

  21. Muhire, B.M., Golden,M., Murrell, B., Lefeuvre, P., Lett, J-M., Gray, A., Poon, A.Y.F., Ngandu, N.K., Semegni, Y., Tanov, E.P., Monjane, A.L., Harkins, G.W., Varsani, A., Shepherd, D.N., Martin, D.P. (2014) Evidence of pervasive biologically functional secondary-structures within the genomes of eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses. Journal of Virology 88:1972-1989

  22. Harkins, G.W., Martin, D.P., Christoffels, A., Varsani, A. (2014) Towards inferring the global movement of Beak and feather disease virus. Virology 450-451:24-33

  23. Shamsadden-Saeed, F., Massumi, H., Moradi, S., Maddahian, M., Heydarnejad, J., Pour, A.H., Varsani, A. (2014) Incidence and characterization of Potato virus V infections in Iran. VirusDisease 25: 78-84


  1. Farkas, K., Pang, L., Lin, S., Williamson, W., Easingwood, R., Fredericks, R., Jaffer, M.A., Varsani, A. (2013) A gel filtration-based method for the purification of infectious rotavirus particles for environmental research applications. Food and Environmental Virology 5 (4): 231-235

  2. Hernández-Zepeda, C., Varsani, A., Brown, J.K. (2013) Intergeneric recombination between a new, spinach-infecting curtovirus and a new geminiviral species in the proposed genus Becurtovirus: first New World exemplar. Archives of Virology 158: 2245-2254

  3. Sikorski, A., Massaro, M., Kraberger, S., Young, L.M., Smalley, S., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2013) Novel myco-like DNA viruses discovered in the faecal matter of various animals. Virus Research. 177: 209-216

  4. Weber, B.W., Kimani, S.W., Varsani, A., Cowon, D.A., Hunter, R., Venter, G.A., Gumbart, J.C., Sewell, B.T. (2013) The mechanism of the amidases: Mutating the glutamate adjacent to the catalytic triad inactivates the enzyme due to substrate mispositioning. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288 (40): 28514-28523

  5. Ng, T.F.F., Alavandi, S., Varsani, A., Burghart, S., Breitbart, M. (2013) Metagenomic identification of a nodavirus and a circular ssDNA virus in semi-purified viral nucleic acids from the hepatopancreas of healthy Farfantepenaeus duorarum shrimp. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 105: 237–242

  6. Kraberger, S., Harkins, G.W., Kumari, S.G., Thomas, J.E., Schwinghamer, M.W., Sharman, M., Collings, D.A., Briddon, R.W., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2013) Evidence that dicot-infecting mastreviruses are particularly prone to inter-species recombination and have likely been circulating in Australia for longer than in Africa and the Middle East. Virology 444: 282-291

  7. McCarthy, J.K., Didham, R.K., Brockerhoff, E.G., van Bysterveldt, K.A., Varsani, A. (2013) High resolution DNA melt curve analysis for cost-effective mass screening of pairwise species interactions. Molecular Ecology Resources 13: 908-917

  8. Sikorski,A., Dayaram,A., Varsani, A. (2013) Identification of a novel circular DNA virus in New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) faecal matter Genomes Announcements 1(4):e00558-13.

  9. Kraberger, S., Stainton, D., Dayaram, A., Zawar-Reza, P., Gomez, C., Harding, J., Varsani, A. (2013) Discovery of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated virus-1 in urban river sediments of Heathcote and Styx rivers in Christchurch City, New Zealand Genome Announcements 1(4):e00559-13.

  10. Dayaram, A., Potter, K., Moline, A.B., Rosenstein, D.D., Marinov, M., Thomas, J.E., Breitbart, M., Rosario, K., Argüello-Astorga, G.R., Varsani, A. (2013) High global diversity of cycloviruses amongst dragonflies Journal of General Virology 94: 1827-1840

  11. Sikorski, A., Kearvell, J., Elkington, S., Dayaram, A., Argüello-Astorga, G. R., Varsani, A. (2013) Novel ssDNA viruses discovered in Yellow-crowned Parakeet (Cyanoramphus auriceps) nesting material. Archives of Virology 158:1603-1607

  12. Dayaram, A., Goldstien, S., Zawar-Reza, P., Gomez, C., Harding, J.S., Varsani, A. (2013) Identification of Starling circovirus in an estuarine Mollusc (Amphibola crenata) in New Zealand using metagenomic approaches. Genomes Announcements. 1: e00278-13

  13. Kardani, S.G., Heydarnejad, J., Zakiaghl, M., Mehrvar, M., Kraberger, S., Varsani, A. (2013) Diversity of beet curly top Iran virus isolated from different hosts in Iran. Virus Genes. 46: 571-575

  14. Muhire, B., Martin, D.P., Brown, J.K., Navas-Castillo, J., Moriones, E., Zerbini, F.M., Rivera-Bustamante, R., Malathi, V.G., Briddon, R.W., Varsani, A. (2013) A genome-wide pairwise-identity-based proposal for the classification of viruses in the genus Mastrevirus (Geminiviridae). Archives of Virology 158: 1411-1424

  15. Rocha, C.S., Castillo-Urquiza, G.P., Lima, A.T.M., Silva, F.N., Xavier, C.A.D., Hora-Júnior, B.T., Beserra-Júnior, J.E.A., Malta, A.W.O, Martin, D.P., Varsani, A., Alfenas-Zerbini, P., Mizubuti, E.S.G., Zerbini, F.M (2013) Brazilian begomovirus populations are highly recombinant, rapidly evolving, and segregated based on geographical location Journal of Virology 87: 5784-5799

  16. Razavinejad, S., Heydarnejad, J., Kamali, M., Massumi, H., Kraberger, S., Varsani, A. (2013) Genetic diversity and host range studies of Turnip curly top virus. Virus Genes 46: 345-353

  17. Heydarnejad, J., Hesari, M., Massumi, H., Varsani, A. (2013) Incidence and natural hosts of Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus in Iran Australasian Plant Pathology 42: 195-203

  18. Dayaram, A., Goldstien, S., Zawar-Reza, P., Gomez, C., Harding, J.S., Varsani, A. (2013) Novel single stranded DNA virus recovered from estuarine Mollusc (Amphibola crenata) whose replication associated protein (Rep) shares similarities with Rep-like sequences of bacterial origin. Journal of General Virology. 94: 1083-1089

  19. Julian, L., Piasecki, T., Chrząstek, K., Walters, M., Muhire, B., Harkins, G.W., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2013) Extensive recombination detected amongst Beak and feather disease virus isolates from breeding facilities in Poland. Journal of General Virology. 94:1065-1074

  20. Piasecki, T., Harkins, G.W., Chrząstek, K., Julian, L., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2013) Avihepadnavirus diversity in parrots is comparable to that found amongst all other avian species. Virology 438: 98-105

  21. North, R.A., Kessans, S.A., Atkinson, S.C., Suzuki, H., Watson, A., Burgess, B.R., Angley, L.M., Hudson, A.O., Varsani, A., Griffin, M.D.W., Fairbanks, A.J., Dobson, R.C.J. (2013) Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of N-acetyl neuraminate lyase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Crystallographica F69: 306-312

  22. Heydarnejad, H., Keyvani, N., Razavinejad, S., Massumi, H., Varsani, A. (2013) Fulfilling the Koch’s postulate for Beet curly top Iran virus and proposal for consideration of new genus in the family Geminiviridae. Archives of virology 158: 435-443

  23. Rosario, K., Padilla-Rodriguez, M., Kraberger, S., Stainton, D., Martin, D.P., Breitbart, M., Varsani, A. (2013) Discovery of a novel mastrevirus and alphasatellite-like circular DNA in dragonflies (Epiprocta) from Puerto Rico Virus Research 171: 231-237

  24. Heber, S., Varsani, A., Kuhn, S., Girg, A., Kempenaers, B., Briskie, J.V. (2013) The genetic rescue of two bottlenecked South Island robin populations using translocations of inbred donors. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 20122228.

  25. Sikorski, A., Argüello-Astorga, G, R., Dayaram, A., Dobson, R.C.J., Varsani, A. (2013) Discovery of a novel circular single stranded DNA virus from porcine faeces Archives of Virology 158: 283-289


  1. Monjane, A.L., Pande, D., Lakay, F., Shepherd, D.N., van der Walt, R., Lefeurve, P., Lett, J-M., Varsani, A., Rybicki, E.P., Martin, D.P. (2012) Adaptive evolution by recombination is not associated with increased mutation rates in Maize streak virus BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12: 252

  2. De Bruyn, A., Villemot, J., Lefeuvre, P., Villar, E., Hoareau, M., Harimalala, M., Abdoul-Karime, A.L., Abdou-Chakour, C. Reynaud, B., Harkins, G.W., Varsani, A., Martin, D.P., Lett, J-M. (2012) East African cassava mosaic-like viruses from Africa to Indian Ocean Islands: molecular diversity, evolutionary history and geographical dissemination of a bipartite begomovirus BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12: 228

  3. Rosario, K., Dayaram, A., Marinov, M., Ware, J., Kraberger, S., Stainton, D., Breitbart, M., Varsani, A. (2012) Diverse circular ssDNA viruses discovered in dragonflies (Odonata: Epiprocta) Journal of General Virology 93: 2668-2681

  4. Kraberger, S., Thomas, J.E., Geering, A.D.W., Dayaram, A., Stainton, D., Hadfield, J., Walters, M., Parmenter, K.S., van Brunschot, S., Collings, D.A., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2012) Australian monocot-infecting mastrevirus diversity rivals that in Africa. Virus Research 169: 127-136.

  5. Julian, L., Lorenzo, A., Chenuet, J-P., Bonzon, M., Marchal, C., Vignon, L., Collings, D.A., Walters, M., Jackson, B., Varsani, A. (2012) Evidence of multiple introductions of Beak and feather disease virus into the pacific islands of Nouvelle-Calédonie (New Caledonia) Journal of General Virology 93: 2466 – 2472

  6. Massaro, M., Ortiz-Catedral, L., Julian, L., Galbraith, J.A., Kurenbach, B., Kearvell, J., Kemp, J., Van Hal, J., Elkington, E., Taylor, G., Greene, T., van de Wetering, J., van de Watering, M., Pryde, M., Dilks, P., Heber, S., Steeves, T, Walters, M., Shaw, S, Potter, J., Farrant, M., Brunton, D.H., Hauber, M., Jackson, B., Bell, P., Moorhouse, R., McInnes, K., Varsani, A. (2012) Molecular characterisation of Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in New Zealand and its implications for managing an emerging, infectious disease. Archives of Virology 157: 1651-1663

  7. Pande, D., Kraberger, K., Lefeurve, P., Lett, J-M., Shepherd, D.N., Varsani, A, Martin, D.P. (2012) A novel maize-infecting mastrevirus from La Réunion Island. Archives of Virology 157: 1617–1621

  8. Dayaram, A., Opong, A., Jäschke, A., Hadfield, J., Baschiera, M., Dobson, R.C.J., Offei, S.K., Shepherd, D.N., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2012) Molecular characterisation of a novel cassava associated circular ssDNA virus. Virus Research 166: 130-135.

  9. Hadfield, J., Thomas, J.E., Schwinghamer, M.W., Kraberger, S., Stainton, D., Dayaram, A., Parry, J.N., Pande, P., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2012) Molecular characterisation of dicot-infecting mastreviruses from Australia. Virus Research 166: 13-22.

  10. Albuquerque, L.C., Varsani, A., Fernandes, F. R., Pinheiro, B., Martin, D.P., Ferreira, P.T.O., Lemos, T.O., Inoue-Nagata, A.K. (2012) Further characterization of tomato-infecting begomoviruses in Brazil. Archives of Virology, 157, 747-752

  11. Stainton, D., Kraberger,S., Walters, M., Wiltshire,E.J., Rosario, K., Halafihi, M., Lolohea, S., Katoa, I., Faitua, T.H., Aholelei,W., Taufa, L., Thomas, J.E, Collings, D.A., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2012) Evidence of inter-component recombination, intra-component recombination and reassortment in Banana bunchy top virus. Journal of General Virology, 93, 1103-1119

  12. Piasecki, T., Kurenbach, B., Chrząstek, K., Kraberger, S., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2012) Molecular characterisation of an avihepadnavirus isolated from Psittacula krameri (Ring-necked parrot). Archives of Virology, 157, 585–590

  13. Péréfarres, F., De Bruyn, F.A., Kraberger, S., Hoareau, M., Barjon, F., Lefeuvre, P., Pellegrin, F., Caplong, P., Varsani, A., Lett, J-M. (2012) Occurrence of the Israel strain of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands. New Disease Reports, 25, 6

  14. Geering, A.D.W., Thomas, J.E., Holton, T., Hadfield, J., Varsani, A. (2012) Paspalum striate mosaic virus: An Australian mastrevirus from Paspalum dilatatum. Archives of Virology, 157, 193-197


  1. Monjane, A.L., van der Walt, E., Varsani, A., Rybicki, E.P., Martin, D.P. (2011) Recombination hotspots and host susceptibility modulate the adaptive value of recombination during Maize streak virus evolution. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11, 350

  2. Hadfield, J., Linderme, D., Shepherd, D.N., Bezuidenhout, M., Lefeuvre, P., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2011) Complete genome sequence of a dahlia common mosaic virus isolate from New Zealand. Archives of Virology, 156, 2297-2301

  3. Goldsmith, D., Crosti, G, Dwivedi, B., McDaniel, L., Varsani, A., Suttle, C., Weinbauer, M., Sandaa, R-A., Breitbart, M. (2011) Development of phoH as a novel signature gene for assessing marine phage diversity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(21),7730-7739

  4. Martin, D.P., Lefeuvre, P., Varsani, A., Hoareau, M., Semegni, J.Y., Dijoux, B., Vincent, C., Reynaud, B., Lett, J-M. (2011) Complex recombination patterns arising during geminivirus coinfections preserve and demarcate biologically important intra-genome interaction networks. PLoS Pathogens, 7(9), e1002203.

  5. Martin, D.P., Biagini, P., Lefeuvre, P., Golden, M., Roumagnac, P., Varsani, A. (2011) Recombination in eukaryotic single stranded DNA viruses. Viruses, 3(9), 1699-1738.

  6. Monjane, A.L., Harkins, G.W., Martin, D.P., Lemey, P., Lefeurve, P., Shepherd, D.P., Oluwafemi, S., Simuyandi, M., Zinga, I., Komba, E.K., Lakoutene, D.P., Mandakombo, N., Mboukoulida, P., Semballa, S., Tagne, A., Tiendrébéogo, F., Erdmann, J.B., van Antwerpen, T., Owor, B.E., Flett, B., Ramusi, M., Windram, O., Syed, R., Lett, J.M., Briddon, R.W., Markham, P.G., Rybicki, E.P., Varsani, A. (2011) Reconstructing the history of Maize streak virus strain A dispersal to reveal diversification hot spots and its origin in southern Africa. Journal of Virology, 85(18), 9623-9636.

  7. Salari, K., Massumi, H., Heydarnejad, J., Pour, A.H., Varsani, A. (2011) Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates. Virus genes, 43, 281-288.

  8. Martin, D.P., Briddon, R.W., Varsani, A. (2011) Recombination patterns in dicot-infecting mastreviruses mirror those found in monocot-infecting mastreviruses. Archives of Virology. 156: 1463-1469

  9. Martin, D.P., Linderme, D., Lefeuvre, P., Shepherd, D.N., Varsani, A. (2011) Eragrostis minor streak virus: An Asian streak virus in Africa. Archives of Virology. 156: 1299-1303

  10. Miller, J.L., Woodward, J., Chen, S., Jaffer, M., Weber, B., Nagasaki, K., Tomaru, Y., Wepf, R., Roseman, A., Varsani, A., Sewell, B.T. (2011) Three-dimensional reconstruction of Heterocapsa circularisquama RNA virus by Cryo-electron microscopy. Journal of General Virology 92:1960-1970

  11. Rosario, K., Marinov, M., Stainton, D., Kraberger, S., Wiltshire, E.J., Collings, D.A., Walters, M., Martin, D.P., Breitbart, M., Varsani, A. (2011) Dragonfly cyclovirus, a novel single-stranded DNA virus discovered in dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera). Journal of General Virology. 92, 1302 - 1308

  12. Hosseini, A., Massumi, H., Heydarnejad, J., Pour, A.H., Varsani, A. (2011) Characterisation of potato virus Y isolates from Iran. Virus genes. 42, 128-140

  13. Varsani, A., Regnard, G.L., Bragg, R.R., Hitzeroth, I.I., Rybicki, E.P. (2011) Global genetic diversity and geographical and host species distribution of beak and feather disease virus isolates. Journal of General Virology. 4, 752-767

  14. Hadfield, J., Martin, D.P., Stainton, D., Kraberger, S., Owor, B.E., Shepherd, D.N., Lakay, F., Markham, P.G., Greber, R.S., Briddon, R.W., Varsani, A. (2011) Bromus catharticus striate mosaic virus: a new mastrevirus infecting Bromus catharticus from Australia. Archives of Virology 156, 335-341


  1. Lefeuvre, P., Martin, D.P., Harkins, H., Lemey, P., Gray, A., Meredith, S., Lakay, F., Monjane, AL., Lett, J.M., Varsani, A., Heydarnejad, J. (2010) The spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus from the Middle East to the world. PLoS Pathogens 28;6(10):e1001164

  2. Tazehkand, A.S., Pour, A.H., Heydarnejad, J., Varsani, A., Massumi, H. (2010) Identification of phytoplasmas associated with cultivated and ornamental plants in Kerman province, Iran. Journal of Phytopathology, 158:713-720

  3. Briddon, R.W., Martin, D.P., Owor, B.E., Donaldson, L., Markham, P.G., Greber, R.S., Varsani, A. (2010) A novel species of mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae) isolated from Digitaria didactyla grass from Australia. Archives of Virology 155, 8, 1529-1534

  4. Williamson, D.S., Dent, K.C., Weber, W.B., Varsani, A., Frederick, J., Cameron, R.A., van Heerden, J.H., Cowan, D.A., Sewell, B.T. (2010) Structural and biochemical characterization of a nitrilase from the thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus pallidus RAPc8. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 88, 143-153.

  5. Briddon, R.W., Heydarnejad, J., Khosrowfar, F., Massumi, H., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2010) Turnip curly top virus, a highly divergent geminivirus infecting turnip in Iran. Virus Research, 152, 169 - 175.

  6. Ortiz-Catedral, L., Kurenbach, B., Massaro, M., McInnes, K., Brunton, D.H., Hauber, M.E., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2010) A new isolate of Beak and feather disease virus from endemic wild Red-fronted parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) in New Zealand. Archives of Virology, 155, 613-620.

  7. Varsani, A., de Villiers, G. K., Regnard, G., Bragg, R. R., Kondiah, K. M., Hitzeroth, I., Rybicki, E. P. (2010) A unique isolate of Beak and feather disease virus from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates) in South Africa. Archives of Virology, 155, 435-439.

  8. Erdmann, J.B., Shepherd, D.N., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A., Rybicki, E., Jeske, H. (2010) Replicative intermediates of Maize streak virus found during leaf development. Journal of General Virology, 91, 1077-1084.

  9. Shepherd, D.N., Martin, D.P., van der Walt, E., Dent, K., Varsani, A., Rybicki, E.P. (2010) Maize streak virus: an old and complex 'emerging' pathogen. Molecular Plant Pathology, 11, 1, 1-12.


  1. Varsani, A., Shepherd, D.N., Dent, K., Monjane, A.L., Rybicki, E.P., Martin, D.P. (2009) A highly divergent South African geminivirus species illuminates the ancient evolutionary history of this family. Virology Journal, 6, 36.

  2. Lawry, R., Martin, D.P., Shepherd, D.N., van Antwerpen, T., Varsani, A. (2009) A novel sugarcane-infecting mastrevirus from South Africa. Archives of Virology, 154, 1699-1703.

  3. Mackinder, L.C., Worthy, C.A., Biggi, G., Hall, M., Ryan, K.P., Varsani, A., Harper, G., Wilson, W.H., Brownlee, C., Schroeder, D.C. (2009) A unicellular algal virus, Emiliania huxleyi virus 86, exploits an animal-like infection strategy. Journal of General Virology, 90, 2306-2316.

  4. Varsani, A., Monjane, A.L., Donaldson, L., Oluwafemi, S., Zinga, I., Komba, E.K., Plakoutene, D., Mandakombo, N., Mboukoulida, J., Semballa, S., Briddon, R.W., Markham, P.G., Lett, J.M., Lefeuvre, P., Rybicki, E.P., Martin, D.P. (2009) Comparative analysis of Panicum streak virus and Maize streak virus diversity, recombination patterns and phylogeography. Virology Journal, 2009, 6, 194.

  5. Lett, J. M., Lefeuvre, P., Couston, L., Hoareau, M., Thierry, M., Reynaud, B., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2009) Complete genomic sequences of Tomato yellow leaf curl Mali virus isolates infecting tomato and pepper from the North Province of Cameroon. Archives of Virology, 154, 535-40.

  6. Heydarnejad, J., Mozaffari, A., Massumi, H., Fazeli, R., Gray, A.J., Meredith, S., Lakay, F., Shepherd, D.N., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2009) Complete sequences of tomato leaf curl Palampur virus isolates infecting cucurbits in Iran. Archives of Virology, 154, 6, 1015-1018.

  7. Harkins, G.W., Martin, D.P., Duffy, S., Monjane, A.L., Shepherd, D.N., Windram, O.P., Owor, B.E., Donaldson, L., van Antwerpen, T., Sayed, R.A., Flett, B., Ramusi, M., Rybicki, E.P., Peterschmitt, M., Varsani, A. (2009) Dating the origins of the maize-adapted strain of maize streak virus, MSV-A. Journal of General Virology, 90, 3066–3074.

  8. Harkins, G.W., Delport, W., Duffy, S., Wood, N., Monjane, A.L., Owor, B.E., Donaldson, L., Saumtally, S., Triton, G., Briddon, R.W., Shepherd, D.N., Rybicki, E.P., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2009) Experimental evidence indicating that mastreviruses probably did not co-diverge with their hosts. Virology Journal, 6, 104.

  9. Fazeli, R., Heydarnejad, J., Massumi, H., Shaabanian, M., Varsani, A. (2009) Genetic diversity and distribution of tomato-infecting begomoviruses in Iran. Virus Genes, 38, 2, 311-9.

  10. van der Walt, E., Rybicki, E.P., Varsani, A., Polston, J. E., Billharz, R., Donaldson, L., Monjane, A. L., Martin, D.P. (2009) Rapid host adaptation by extensive recombination. Journal of General Virology, 90, 3, 734-46.

  11. Lefeuvre, P., Lett, J.M., Varsani, A., Martin, D.P. (2009) Widely conserved recombination patterns among single-stranded DNA viruses. Journal of Virology, 83, 6, 2697-707.


  1. Oluwafemi, S., Varsani, A., Monjane, A.L., Shepherd, D.N., Owor, B.E., Rybicki, E.P., Martin, D.P. (2008) A new African streak virus species from Nigeria. Archives of Virology, 153, 7, 1407-1410.

  2. Shepherd, D.N., Martin, D.P., Lefeuvre, P., Monjane, A.L., Owor, B.E., Rybicki, E.P., Varsani, A. (2008) A protocol for the rapid isolation of full geminivirus genomes from dried plant tissue. Journal of Virological Methods, 149, 1, 97-102.

  3. Windram, O.P., Weber, B., Jaffer, M.A., Rybicki, E.P., Shepherd, D.N., Varsani, A. (2008) An investigation into the use of human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles as a delivery vector system for foreign proteins: N- and C-terminal fusion of GFP to the L1 and L2 capsid proteins. Archives of Virology, 153, 3, 585-589.

  4. van der Walt, E., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A., Polston, J.E., Rybicki, E.P. (2008) Experimental observations of rapid Maize streak virus evolution reveal a strand-specific nucleotide substitution bias. Virology Journal, 5, 104, 11.

  5. van Antwerpen, T., McFarlane, S.A., Buchanan, G.F., Shepherd, D.N., Martin, D.P., Rybicki, E.P., Varsani, A. (2008) First Report of Maize streak virus Field Infection of Sugarcane in South Africa. Plant Disease, 92, 6, 982-982.

  6. Shepherd, D.N., Varsani, A., Windram, O.P., Lefeuvre, P., Monjane, A.L., Owor, B.E., Martin, D.P. (2008) Novel sugarcane streak and sugarcane streak Reunion mastreviruses from southern Africa and La Reunion. Archives of Virology, 153, 3, 605-609.

  7. Varsani, A., Oluwafemi, S., Windram, O.P., Shepherd, D.N., Monjane, A.L., Owor, B.E., Rybicki, E.P., Lefeuvre, P., Martin, D.P. (2008) Panicum streak virus diversity is similar to that observed for maize streak virus. Archives of Virology, 153, 3, 601-604.

  8. Varsani, A., Shepherd, D.N., Monjane, A.L., Owor, B.E., Erdmann, J.B., Rybicki, E.P., Peterschmitt, M., Briddon, R.W., Markham, P.G., Oluwafemi, S., Windram, O.P., Lefeuvre, P., Lett, J.-M., Martin, D.P. (2008) Recombination, decreased host specificity and increased mobility may have driven the emergence of maize streak virus as an agricultural pathogen. Journal of General Virology, 89, 9, 2063-2074.

  9. Castillo-Urquiza, G.P., Beserra, J.E.A., Bruckner, F.P., Lima, A.T.M., Varsani, A., Alfenas-Zerbini, P., Zerbini, F.M. (2008) Six novel begomoviruses infecting tomato and associated weeds in Southeastern Brazil. Archives of Virology, 153, 10, 1985-1989.


  1. Lefeuvre, P., Martin, D. P., Hoareau, M., Naze, F., Delatte, H., Thierry, M., Varsani, A., Becker, N., Reynaud, B., Lett, J. M. (2007) Begomovirus 'melting pot' in the south-west Indian Ocean islands: molecular diversity and evolution through recombination. Journal of General Virology, 88, 3458-3468.

  2. Owor, B.E., Martin, D.P., Shepherd, D. N., Edema, R., Monjane, A.L., Rybicki, E.P., Thomson, J. A., Varsani, A. (2007) Genetic analysis of maize streak virus isolates from Uganda reveals widespread distribution of a recombinant variant. Journal of General Virology, 88, 3154-3165.

  3. Bredell, H., Martin, D.P., Van Harmelen, J., Varsani, A., Sheppard, H.W., Donovan, R., Gray, C. M., Williamson, C., Hivnet028 Study Team. (2007) HIV type 1 subtype C gag and nef diversity in southern Africa. Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 23, 3, 477-481.

  4. Thuku, R.N., Weber, B.W., Varsani, A., Sewell, B.T. (2007) Post-translational cleavage of recombinantly expressed nitrilase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1 yields a stable, active helical form. FEBS Journal, 274, 8, 2099-2108.

  5. Owor, B.E., Shepherd, D.N., Taylor, N.J., Edema, R., Monjane, A.L., Thomson, J.A., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A. (2007) Successful application of FTA((R)) Classic Card technology and use of bacteriophage phi 29 DNA polymerase for large-scale field sampling and cloning of complete maize streak virus genomes. Journal of Virological Methods, 140, 1-2, 100-105.


  1. Varsani, A., Williamson, A.L., Jaffer, M.A., Rybicki, E.P. (2006) A deletion and point mutation study of the human papillomavirus type 16 major capsid gene. Virus Research, 122, 1-2, 154-163.

  2. Varsani, A., van der Walt, E., Heath, L., Rybicki, E.P., Williamson, A.L., Martin, D.P. (2006) Evidence of ancient papillomavirus recombination. Journal of General Virology, 87, 2527-2531.

  3. Kohl, T., Hitzeroth, I.I., Stewart, D., Varsani, A., Govan, V.A., Christensen, N.D., Williamson, A.L., Rybicki, E.P. (2006) Plant-produced cottontail rabbit papillomavirus L1 protein protects against tumor challenge: a proof-of-concept study. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 13, 8, 845-853.

  4. Heath, L., van der Walt, E., Varsani, A., Martin, D.P. (2006) Recombination patterns in aphthoviruses mirror those found in other picornaviruses. Journal of Virology, 80, 23, 11827-11832.

  5. Shepherd, D.N., Martin, D.P., Varsani, A., Thomson, J.A., Rybicki, E.P., Klump, H.H. (2006) Restoration of native folding of single-stranded DNA sequences through reverse mutations: An indication of a new epigenetic mechanism. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 453, 1, 108-122.

  6. Varsani, A., Williamson, A.L., Stewart, D., Rybicki, E.P. (2006) Transient expression of Human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana using an infectious tobamovirus vector. Virus Research, 120, 1-2, 91-96.


  1. Varsani, A., Williamson, A.L., de Villiers, D., Becker, I., Christensen, N.D., Rybicki, E.P. (2003) Chimeric human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 particles presenting the common neutralizing epitope for the L2 minor capsid protein of HPV-6 and HPV-16. Journal of Virology, 77, 15, 8386-8393.

  2. Varsani, A., Williamson, A.L., Rose, R.C., Jaffer, M., Rybicki, E.P. (2003) Expression of Human papillomavirus type 16 major capsid protein in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi. Archives of Virology, 148, 9, 1771-1786.